2 Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Secret Agreement between France & BritainDefined the spheres of influence that France & Britain would have over Ottoman land after WWI
3 The Balfour Declaration Foreign Office November 2nd, Dear Lord Rothschild: I have much pleasure in conveying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet: His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours, Arthur James Balfour
5 Inter-War PeriodArabs felt betrayed by the West after promised & denied independenceBalfour Declaration led to a commitment by Britain to a national homeland for Jews in Palestine (but the Palestinians were there) and furthered the Zionist movement begun in the late 19th centuryAt first, Arabs welcomed economic boost, but when Jews began to clear the land of Arab tenants & refused to hire Palestinian workers conflict
6 Post-WWIIAfter the holocaust, Jewish migration to Israel, conflict w/ Palestinians & world-wide sympathy led to Britain referring the Palestinian issue it created to the U.N.1947 – U.N. called for a partition of Palestine w/ Jerusalem as an international city (Jews got 55% land while only 34% of the population) Palestine & Islamic countries voted against, but Jews voted forMay 14, 1948 – Israel independent w/ David Ben Gurion as P.M.
10 1956 Suez Crisis 1956 Suez Crisis Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egyptian President, nationalized the SuezCanal Britain, France & Israelinvaded Egypt & took the CanalPressure by U.S. & U.S.S.R.forced Israel to withdraw Egypt in charge of Canal
11 1967 Six-Day War Nasser moved to close off the Gulf of Aqaba Israel attacked Egypt,Iran, Jordan & SyriaIsrael Sinai Peninsula(incl. Gaza Strip), GolanHeights, West Bank &Old Jerusalem
12 After the 1973 War1973Anwar Sadat (Nasser’s successor) led surprise Arabattack on Yom Kippur & Golda Meir (Israeli P.M.)launched counterattack – truce signed, but no peace treaty
13 PEACE? November 1977 1970s & 1980s 1993 Declaration of Principles 1978 U.S. Pres. Carter invitedSadat & Menachem Begin (IsraeliP.M.) to Camp David1979 Camp David AccordsWorld praised Sadat, but Muslimextremists assassinated him 19811982 Israel withdrew from SinaiNovember 1977In Jerusalem, Sadat offered peaceto Israel in exchange for withdrawalfrom 1967 War territories& recognize Palestinians’ rights1970s & 1980sPalestinian Liberation Organization(PLO) formed under Yasir ArafatCampaign of civil disobedience(intifada) influenced world opinionOctober 1991, Israeli &Palestinian delegates met for thefirst time in peace talksYitzak Rabin (Israeli P.M.)agreed to give Palestiniansself-rule in the Gaza Strip &West Bank1993 Rabin & Arafat signed atthe White House in D.C.1995 Rabin assassinated1993 Declaration ofPrinciples(peace talks at Oslo, Norway)
16 Will Recent Events Lead to Peace? negotiations for a final settlement (at Camp David) ended in deadlock – each side blaming the other2nd Intifada - violence resumed after Ariel Sharon (then General) visited the temple mount2002 – Saudi proposal for peace was adopted by the Arab League & became a U.N. Resolution (1st time Arab countries called for a Palestine alongside Israel) – Israel rejected itSuicide bombings & resultant Israeli occupation continues to hinder peace
22 Recent Event Peace? (cont.) 2004 – Syria tried to renew peace treaty talks w/ Israel from 1967, but has met cool receptionNovember 11, Yasser Arafat died Mahmoud Abbas became Palestinian leader2005 – Sharm El Sheikh Conference – both sides agreed to end violence & Israel’s Knesset approved Disengagement Plan (withdrawal of 24 settlements)Nevertheless violence continued2006 – Hamas (organization w/ terrorist ties) won election in Palestinian legislature (Abbas still President)2012 – the State of Palestine replaced the PLO in the UN & upgraded its status as “non-member observer”Egypt is leading cease-fire efforts re: current flare-ups
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