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Arab-Israeli Conflict. Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Secret Agreement between France & Britain Defined the spheres of influence that France & Britain would.

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Presentation on theme: "Arab-Israeli Conflict. Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Secret Agreement between France & Britain Defined the spheres of influence that France & Britain would."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arab-Israeli Conflict

2 Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Secret Agreement between France & Britain Defined the spheres of influence that France & Britain would have over Ottoman land after WWI

3 The Balfour Declaration Foreign Office November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild: I have much pleasure in conveying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet: His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours, Arthur James Balfour

4 Post–WWI Reality

5 Inter-War Period Arabs felt betrayed by the West after promised & denied independence Balfour Declaration led to a commitment by Britain to a national homeland for Jews in Palestine (but the Palestinians were there) and furthered the Zionist movement begun in the late 19 th century At first, Arabs welcomed economic boost, but when Jews began to clear the land of Arab tenants & refused to hire Palestinian workers  conflict

6 Post-WWII After the holocaust, Jewish migration to Israel, conflict w/ Palestinians & world-wide sympathy led to Britain referring the Palestinian issue it created to the U.N – U.N. called for a partition of Palestine w/ Jerusalem as an international city (Jews got 55% land while only 34% of the population)  Palestine & Islamic countries voted against, but Jews voted for May 14, 1948 – Israel independent w/ David Ben Gurion as P.M.

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8 The day after independence, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia & Syria invaded Israel Israel seized ½ Palestinian land Egypt  Gaza Strip Jordan  West Bank Palestinians  no land (refugees)

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10 1956 Suez Crisis Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egyptian President, nationalized the Suez Canal  Britain, France & Israel invaded Egypt & took the Canal Pressure by U.S. & U.S.S.R. forced Israel to withdraw  Egypt in charge of Canal

11 1967 Six-Day War Nasser moved to close off the Gulf of Aqaba  Israel attacked Egypt, Iran, Jordan & Syria Israel  Sinai Peninsula (incl. Gaza Strip), Golan Heights, West Bank & Old Jerusalem

12 After the 1973 War 1973 Anwar Sadat (Nasser’s successor) led surprise Arab attack on Yom Kippur & Golda Meir (Israeli P.M.) launched counterattack – truce signed, but no peace treaty

13 PEACE?PEACE? November 1977 In Jerusalem, Sadat offered peace to Israel in exchange for withdrawal from 1967 War territories & recognize Palestinians’ rights 1978 U.S. Pres. Carter invited Sadat & Menachem Begin (Israeli P.M.) to Camp David 1979 Camp David Accords World praised Sadat, but Muslim extremists assassinated him Israel withdrew from Sinai 1970s & 1980s Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) formed under Yasir Arafat Campaign of civil disobedience (intifada) influenced world opinion October 1991, Israeli & Palestinian delegates met for the first time in peace talks 1993 Declaration of Principles (peace talks at Oslo, Norway) Yitzak Rabin (Israeli P.M.) agreed to give Palestinians self-rule in the Gaza Strip & West Bank 1993 Rabin & Arafat signed at the White House in D.C Rabin assassinated

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15 Israeli Settlements

16 Will Recent Events Lead to Peace? negotiations for a final settlement (at Camp David) ended in deadlock – each side blaming the other 2 nd Intifada - violence resumed after Ariel Sharon (then General) visited the temple mount 2002 – Saudi proposal for peace was adopted by the Arab League & became a U.N. Resolution (1 st time Arab countries called for a Palestine alongside Israel) – Israel rejected it Suicide bombings & resultant Israeli occupation continues to hinder peace

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18 Israel’s Security Barrier (a.k.a. “Security Fence” or “Apartheid Wall”)

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22 Recent Event  Peace? (cont.) 2004 – Syria tried to renew peace treaty talks w/ Israel from 1967, but has met cool reception November 11, Yasser Arafat died  Mahmoud Abbas became Palestinian leader 2005 – Sharm El Sheikh Conference – both sides agreed to end violence & Israel’s Knesset approved Disengagement Plan (withdrawal of 24 settlements) Nevertheless violence continued 2006 – Hamas (organization w/ terrorist ties) won election in Palestinian legislature (Abbas still President) 2012 – the State of Palestine replaced the PLO in the UN & upgraded its status as “non-member observer” Egypt is leading cease-fire efforts re: current flare-ups


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