Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT Government and the State
2 WHAT IS GOVERNMENT?Government: the political and administrative institutions of a society, the institution found in every civilized society that passes, administers and enforces the laws that control the society.Examples:
3 Sovereign State -a body of people, occupying a defined territory, organized politically and having power to make and enforce law without consent of a higher authority.
4 At least 90% of political conflict has historically revolved around the questions of: Who has the power/responsibility and who doesn’t?How much government is necessary?NBC-ANN CURRY-SOMALIAToday that conflict continues
5 Political Philosophies Background:Greek thought and Roman-Classical Republicanism, Age of Enlightenment, Humanism-Modern Liberalism
6 Origins Force theory-war Evolutionary-family Divine Right-God made me King(China called this?)Social Contract-constitutionGO TO FORMS OF GOVERNMENT VIDEOSocial Contract
7 Natural Rights TheoryMan in state of nature has all rights possible.
8 Social Contract Theory An agreement to create a state.The surrender of power to the state to promote safety.People are source of powerPeople give consent to government to ruleGovernment provides protection of natural rightsasdf
9 A. Man in a state of nature state of war (fear) Thomas Hobbes - English - ( ) Leviathan 1651, Political theory-issues of freedom and authorityA. Man in a state of naturestate of war (fear)
10 B. Man in a political state power surrendered to rulerman has no right to resistthe ruler answers to no oneif your ruler is overthrown, you give loyalty to the new rulerA brutal , oppressive government is better than a “state of nature”
11 John Locke - English - (1632-1704) Two Treatises on Civil Government 1690 A. Man in a state of natureman is bound by natural lawcan be discovered through reason and logicREADING IN YOUR TEXTBOOK-PAGE 806.
12 B. Man in a political state (the social contract) contract between man and their governmentgovernment created to serve its subjectsLimited government and sovereinty of the people
13 John Locke cont.government cannot violate natural law or contract broken. Subjects no longer bound.Right of Revolution !!
14 Jean Jacques Rousseau - French - ( ) The Social Contract 1762 considered the “Greatest Prophet of the Democratic Revolution.”A. Man in a state of natureman good, society corruptsmen have two instincts: self preservation and compassionthere are two types of inequality: natural and political
15 Rousseau cont.Majority rules - no minority rights - no limited governmentThe general will is always best. Individuality would destroy society.Direct or pure democracy only.Majoritarian
16 Montesquieu (1689-1755) in 1748 wrote The Spirit of Laws He believed in a separation of powers in the government3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicialHe opposed the idea of power in the hands of one person.
17 THE PRINCE BY NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI CUT TO VIDEO STREAMINGIN FAVORITESLEADERSHIPCREATE A GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY
18 “We hold these truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it.” Declaration of Independence
19 Characteristics of American Democracy popular consentpopular sovereigntymajority ruleindividualismequalitypersonal liberty7.________________
20 Government Types of States and Other Political Units
21 POLITICAL SYSTEMSA society’s political system includes all the formal and informal ways the society goes about determining who will have political authority, how much they will have and how and for what purposes it will be exercised.
22 STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT OR GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POWER UNITARYFEDERALCONFEDERAL OR CONFEDERATE
23 Unitary StatesStates where the majority of decisions are made by the central governmentSaudi Arabia is a unitary state. Religion and strong government provide dual uniting forces.Image from
24 Democratic Unitary States Culture, tradition. Or homogeneous population bind togetherOnly unitary by the mandate of the peopleParliamentary democracies may be unitary
25 Highly Centralized Unitary States Very tight State controlTotalitarian or dictatorshipUnitary by design and enforcementOften powered by the ideal of the Nation-StateNorth Korean propaganda posterImage from
26 Totalitarian-a political regime based on subordination of the individual to the state and strict control of all aspects of life by coercive means.
27 Federal StatesStates where decisions are split between the central government and more local divisions
28 Confederal StatesGroups of smaller states try to band together to create greater unity and powerDifficult to gain agreements on representation, economics, capital
29 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES
30 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES
31 COMPARISON OF PRESIDENTIAL Selection of chief executive, single executiveFixed term of officeSeparation of powersSet time for electionsPARLIAMENTARYPlural executive, Prime Minister and cabinetNo fixed termNo separation of powersNo set time for elections
33 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY NUMBER WHO CAN PARTICIPATE FLASH-BLADE RUNNER DICTATORSHIPCan be based on an individualOr an ideologyAuthoritarian-complete obedience to an authority, concentration of political power in an authority not responsible to the people.
34 Democracy Pure or Direct Representative Majority rule Minority rights Popular sovereigntyResponse to constituents
35 Economics: The Creation and Distribution of Wealth
36 Economics: Use of scarce resources to produce goods/services, distribute them among competing groups/individualsLandLaborCapitalEntrepreneurshipKnowledge
37 Capitalism Private Property Profit/Ownership Freedom of Competition Freedom of ChoiceSHOW VIDEO-THE ROAD TO PROSPERITY WITH QUESTIONS
38 Communism COMMAND ECONOMY Public Ownership Central Planning/Controlled Economy
39 Karl Marx Bourgeoisie v. Proletariat Class Struggle 6 steps to theory: Economic Interpretation of HistorySurplus Value Theory (Labor Theory of Value)Overthrow of the Bourgeoisie ( can be violent)Dictatorship of the Proletariat, but with the ultimate goal of a classless societyEstablishment of Communism “each work according to their ability, receive according to their needs.
40 Socialism Private & Public Ownership Some Choices are Limited Creates Social Equality & Equality of Results
41 U.S. Government Economic Tools Monetary Policy- management of money supplyFiscal Policy- management of taxes and government expendituresNational Debt