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1 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT Government and the State.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT Government and the State."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT Government and the State

3 2 WHAT IS GOVERNMENT? Government: the political and administrative institutions of a society, the institution found in every civilized society that passes, administers and enforces the laws that control the society. Examples:

4 3 Sovereign State - a body of people, occupying a defined territory, organized politically and having power to make and enforce law without consent of a higher authority.

5 4 At least 90% of political conflict has historically revolved around the questions of: Who has the power/responsibility and who doesnt? How much government is necessary? NBC-ANN CURRY-SOMALIA Today that conflict continues......

6 5 Political Philosophies Background: Greek thought and Roman- Classical Republicanism, Age of Enlightenment, Humanism-Modern Liberalism

7 6 Origins Force theory-war Evolutionary-family Divine Right-God made me King (China called this?) Social Contract-constitution GO TO FORMS OF GOVERNMENT VIDEO

8 7 Natural Rights Theory Man in state of nature has all rights possible.

9 8 Social Contract Theory An agreement to create a state.The surrender of power to the state to promote safety. People are source of power People give consent to government to rule Government provides protection of natural rights

10 9 Thomas Hobbes - English - ( ) Leviathan 1651, Political theory-issues of freedom and authority A. Man in a state of nature state of war (fear)

11 10 B. Man in a political state power surrendered to ruler man has no right to resist the ruler answers to no one if your ruler is overthrown, you give loyalty to the new ruler A brutal, oppressive government is better than a state of nature

12 11 John Locke - English - ( ) Two Treatises on Civil Government 1690 A. Man in a state of nature man is bound by natural law can be discovered through reason and logic READING IN YOUR TEXTBOOK-PAGE 806.

13 12 B. Man in a political state (the social contract) contract between man and their government government created to serve its subjects Limited government and sovereinty of the people

14 13 John Locke cont. government cannot violate natural law or contract broken. Subjects no longer bound. Right of Revolution !!

15 14 Jean Jacques Rousseau - French - ( ) The Social Contract 1762 considered the Greatest Prophet of the Democratic Revolution. A. Man in a state of nature man good, society corrupts men have two instincts: self preservation and compassion there are two types of inequality: natural and political

16 15 Rousseau cont. Majority rules - no minority rights - no limited government The general will is always best. Individuality would destroy society. Direct or pure democracy only. Majoritarian

17 16 Montesquieu ( ) in 1748 wrote The Spirit of Laws He believed in a separation of powers in the government 3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicial He opposed the idea of power in the hands of one person.

18 17 THE PRINCE BY NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI CUT TO VIDEO STREAMING IN FAVORITES LEADERSHIP CREATE A GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY

19 18 We hold these truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it. Declaration of Independence

20 19 Characteristics of American Democracy 1.popular consent 2.popular sovereignty 3.majority rule 4.individualism 5.equality 6.personal liberty 7.________________

21 20 Government Types of States and Other Political Units

22 21 POLITICAL SYSTEMS A societys political system includes all the formal and informal ways the society goes about determining who will have political authority, how much they will have and how and for what purposes it will be exercised.

23 STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT OR GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POWER UNITARY FEDERAL CONFEDERAL OR CONFEDERATE 22

24 23 Unitary States States where the majority of decisions are made by the central government Saudi Arabia is a unitary state. Religion and strong government provide dual uniting forces. Image from

25 24 Democratic Unitary States Culture, tradition. Or homogeneous population bind together Only unitary by the mandate of the people Parliamentary democracies may be unitary

26 25 Highly Centralized Unitary States Very tight State control –Totalitarian or dictatorship Unitary by design and enforcement Often powered by the ideal of the Nation-State North Korean propaganda poster Image from korea.narod.ru

27 26 Totalitarian-a political regime based on subordination of the individual to the state and strict control of all aspects of life by coercive means.

28 27 Federal States States where decisions are split between the central government and more local divisions

29 28 Confederal States Groups of smaller states try to band together to create greater unity and power Difficult to gain agreements on representation, economics, capital

30 29 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES

31 30 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES

32 31 COMPARISON OF PRESIDENTIAL Selection of chief executive, single executive Fixed term of office Separation of powers Set time for elections PARLIAMENTARY Plural executive, Prime Minister and cabinet No fixed term No separation of powers No set time for elections

33 32 ne-resources/videos/youve-got-the- power/ygtp-voting-1/http://www.parliament.uk/education/onli ne-resources/videos/youve-got-the- power/ygtp-voting-1/

34 33 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNMENT BY NUMBER WHO CAN PARTICIPATE FLASH-BLADE RUNNER DICTATORSHIP Can be based on an individual Or an ideology Authoritarian-complete obedience to an authority, concentration of political power in an authority not responsible to the people.

35 34 Democracy Pure or Direct Representative Majority rule Minority rights Popular sovereignty Response to constituents

36 Economics: The Creation and Distribution of Wealth

37 Economics: Use of scarce resources to produce goods/services, distribute them among competing groups/individuals Land Labor Capital Entrepreneurship Knowledge

38 Capitalism Private Property Profit/Ownership Freedom of Competition Freedom of Choice SHOW VIDEO-THE ROAD TO PROSPERITY WITH QUESTIONS

39 Communism COMMAND ECONOMY Public Ownership Central Planning/Controlled Economy

40 Karl Marx Bourgeoisie v. Proletariat Class Struggle 6 steps to theory: Economic Interpretation of History Surplus Value Theory (Labor Theory of Value) Class Struggle Overthrow of the Bourgeoisie ( can be violent) Dictatorship of the Proletariat, but with the ultimate goal of a classless society Establishment of Communism each work according to their ability, receive according to their needs.

41 Socialism Private & Public Ownership Some Choices are Limited Creates Social Equality & Equality of Results

42 U.S. Government Economic Tools Monetary Policy- management of money supply Fiscal Policy- management of taxes and government expenditures National Debt


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