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The Enlightenment, British Government, & The American Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment, British Government, & The American Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment, British Government, & The American Revolution

2 The Glorious Revolution of 1688
King James II of England overthrown by William and Mary Peaceful revolution- James split to France A.K.A. “The Bloodless Revolution”

3 Results of Glorious Revolution
English Bill of Rights- 1689 CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: Listed what a ruler could not do Limited power of the monarchy (king/queen) Individual rights protected- due process of law

4 England’s Limited Democracy
Monarch’s power was balanced by power of the cabinet and parliament Cabinet- executive committee that linked the king and Parliament Parliament- made up by House of Lords (hereditary) and House of Commons (elected) Prime minister- head of majority party in Parliament Each had to answer to one another, no single authority

5 Britain built a worldwide empire
Wealthy merchants and businessmen dominated British government The best way to make $$$ was colonies Why colonies? Land, Raw Materials, Trade, Power

6 British world empire

7 North America- Early 1700s

8 British Colonization The British took control of North America after French and Indian War (a.k.a. Seven Year’s War ) Question: Why did Britain want to maintain control over the colonies? Answer: To make a profit through trade and gain land

9 The American Colonies Question:
What did the British do to ensure a profit from their American colonies? Answer: Taxes, Taxes, Taxes! Trade only with British merchants and no other countries, called mercantilism

10 The Colonist Reaction- What did they do?
Rebel, Rebel, Rebel Before you have a rebellion, what do you need? Motivation, Ideas, Leaders!!!

11 Boston tea party

12 The American Revolution- 1776
Question: Upon whose Enlightenment ideas did the colonists base their actions for revolution?

13 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Wrote: Leviathan People naturally wicked
Social contract Absolute monarchy is best gov’t “humans are driven by a perpetual and restless desire for power that ceases only in death.”

14 John Locke (1632-1704) Wrote: Two Treatises on Government
Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Property People have the natural right of governing themselves “the natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth…”

15 Montesquieu (1689-1755) Wrote: On the Spirit of Laws, 1748
Separation of powers: executive (president) judicial (courts) legislative (congress) Basis for U.S. Constitution “When the lawmaking & law-enforcing powers are united in the same person…there can be no liberty.”

16 Voltaire ( ) Fought against prejudice, superstition, and intolerance Believed in natural rights of all humans Political and religious freedom

17 Rousseau (1712-1778) Wrote: The Social Contract
The only legitimate government gets its power from the consent of the people “Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

18 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Women All people equal Society benefits from equality of men and women Education is very important “society will not be whole until the last king is strangled with the guts of the last priest.”

19 The Declaration of Independence 1776

The Declaration can be broken into 3 parts Beliefs Facts/Evidence Actions to be taken Analyze the first section; write down the words or phrases that are based in Enlightenment thinking Use your chart to determine who’s ideas are represented in the Declaration

21 Enlightenment thinking?
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Declaration of Independence- 1776

22 “…Laws of Nature and Nature’s God…”
“all Men are created equal…” “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” “Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Government.” Locke Locke/Rousseau Rousseau

23 “…whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive… it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it…” Locke

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