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US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

2 How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America? What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?

3 p. 89

4 Kings centralized power Little use for representative government Direct political control over colonies Dominion of New England Consolidated NE colonies into one unit Tensions arise between colonies and Britain Massachusetts hates Dominion

5 Protestants Mary (James daughter) and husband William of Orange invade Britain Catholic James overthrown, flees to France English Bill of Rights-1689 limited monarchy Dominion abolished King William III tries to control New England Tolerance of other Protestants required Demise of the New England Way

6 King Williams War Extension of European War to North America Invasion of New France Queen Annes War England and France (War of the Spanish Succession) Spanish invade Carolina Acadia captured by British, renamed Nova Scotia


8 Mercantilism Nations power measured in wealth, esp. gold Maximize exports (exchange for gold) Not rely on other nations Colonies would provide raw materials Home country manufactures goods, colonist markets War, if necessary, to gain raw materials, expand markets, block rivals Navigation Acts Certain commodities must go through England Molasses Act-taxed foreign molasses Protective tariffs on foreign goods Encouraged colonies to diversify economies

9 England held demographic edge 250,000 in English colonies by ,000 French and 4,500 Spanish 1,170,000 in English colonies by ,000 French and 19,000 Spanish English had better farmland, weather, healthier economies English accepted most Protestant groups, even non- English Scots-Irish and Germans Anti-Catholic sentiment remained high Small Jewish communities developed

10 Fig. 4-1, p. 96

11 Farmers typically had just enough land for themselves Adult children would rent other land Farms were typically mortgaged Not paid off until reaching late fifties Wives and daughters did household and close-in work on farm Married women, with few exceptions, did not own property Widows owned 8-10% of all property

12 p. 99

13 Rapid expansion east of Appalachians Trees had to be cleared Game drove away Didnt rotate crops Used manure, except with tobacco

14 Map 4-1, p. 97

15 Cities key to prosperity Only 4% of population by 1740 Few significant cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston Poverty rose in cities Women especially affected Changing labor patterns Move from apprentices and journeymen tradesmen to shorter term labor Wealth concentrated in small number of families

16 p. 99

17 p. 101

18 Owners spent just enough to keep slaves alive 40% of what was spent to maintain indentured servants Some food provided, forage or raise other food Creoles, American-born slaves Some slaves learned trades or worked in houses Task system allowed some slaves time to grow own crops and earn some money Gang system-work from dawn to dusk, sometimes longer Slaves could be rented out Black majority in South Carolina Restrictions on slaves


20 Map 4-2, p. 98

21 p. 98

22 p. 102

23 Slave uprising in SC Suppressed brutally Strict slave codes enacted

24 Small number became very wealthy Greater gentry 2% of population Owned 15% of all property Lesser Gentry Next 8% of population Owned 25% of property Imitated refinements of upper class in Europe Some would go on grand tour to Europe

25 04CO, p. 86

26 p. 105

27 French seek to strengthen hold in Mississippi Valley New Orleans established in 1718 Difficult life for all in Louisiana France tries to counter British in Ohio Valley French post of Detroit established English would offer better prices for goods French, in general, treated Indians better, but could be brutal French traders went into Rocky Mountains Bought buffalo hides and Indian slaves Great Plains and Great Basin Indians adopt horse and gun

28 p. 106

29 Map 4-3, p. 110

30 Depopulation and dislocation of natives Conflict came early to Carolina Tuscarora War ( ) Yamasee War ( ) Covenant Chain Iroquois help English conquer other Indians Iroquois become most powerful Indian group

31 Gen. James Oglethorpe Unique experiment Military and philanthropic motives Counter Spanish presence in Florida Limited land holding Excluded Africans initially Excluded Catholics Prohibited rum Strictly regulated trade with natives Poor tradesmen and artisans England and Scotland Religious refugees Germany and Switzerland Lowest percentage of English

32 p. 108

33 Statue of James Oglethorpe Savannah, Georgia Congregation Mickve Israel Founded 1733

34 Spain controlled much of SE and SW by 1750 Spread thin, sparsely populated Depended on support of Natives Americans

35 p. 109

36 p. 110

37 King Georges War ( ) War between Britain and Spain War of the Austrian Succession in Europe New Englanders attack New France

38 p. 111

39 Colonial assemblies a major force Lower house elected by people Upper house appointed by governor Trial of Peter Zenger Encouraged broad political participation and discussion

40 p. 112

41 Well educated population Enlightenment combined human reason with skepticism Benjamin Franklin Embodied Enlightenment in America Science and public benefit

42 p. 114

43 Surge of Protestant revivalism, beginning in 1739 Jonathan Edwards Congregationalist minister Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God George Whitefield Revival tour Unprecedented split in Protestantism New Lights vs. Old Lights New colleges formed Added to prominence of women in religion

44 p. 87

45 p. 117

46 p. 118

47 US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

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