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US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

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1 US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010
The Bonds of Empire US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

2 Focus Questions How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America? What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?

3 Rebellion and War, JACOB LEISLER Leisler led an ill-fated uprising in New York following the Glorious Revolution, and was executed for his efforts. Nevertheless his followers remained politically forceful in New York for a generation after his death. (Courtesy of the City of New Rochelle) p. 89

4 Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
Kings centralized power Little use for representative government Direct political control over colonies Dominion of New England Consolidated NE colonies into one unit Tensions arise between colonies and Britain Massachusetts hates Dominion

5 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689
Protestants Mary (James’ daughter) and husband William of Orange invade Britain Catholic James overthrown, flees to France English Bill of Rights-1689 “limited monarchy” Dominion abolished King William III tries to control New England Tolerance of other Protestants required Demise of the New England Way

6 A Generation of War, 1689-1713 King William’s War Queen Anne’s War
Extension of European War to North America Invasion of New France Queen Anne’s War England and France (War of the Spanish Succession) Spanish invade Carolina Acadia captured by British, renamed Nova Scotia

7 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
BALTIMORE IRONWORKS Whereas free laborers and indentured servants did most manufacturing work in the colonies, about half the workers at this furnace (established in 1733) were enslaved Africans. (Catoctin Furnace DTA_0006 © C. Kurt Holter)

8 Mercantilist Empires in America
Mercantilism Nation’s power measured in wealth, esp. gold Maximize exports (exchange for gold) Not rely on other nations Colonies would provide raw materials Home country manufactures goods, colonist markets War , if necessary, to gain raw materials, expand markets, block rivals Navigation Acts Certain commodities must go through England Molasses Act-taxed foreign molasses Protective tariffs on foreign goods Encouraged colonies to diversify economies

9 Population Growth and Diversity
England held demographic edge 250,000 in English colonies by 1700 15,000 French and 4,500 Spanish 1,170,000 in English colonies by 1750 60,000 French and 19,000 Spanish English had better farmland, weather, healthier economies English accepted most Protestant groups, even non- English Scots-Irish and Germans Anti-Catholic sentiment remained high Small Jewish communities developed

10 FIGURE 4.1 DISTRIBUTION OF EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS WITHIN THE BRITISH MAINLAND COLONIES, 1700–1755 The impact of heavy immigration from 1720 to 1755 can be seen in the reduction of the English and Welsh from four-fi fths of the colonial population to a slight majority; in the sudden infl ux of Germans and Irish (who together comprised a fi fth of white colonists by 1755); and in the doubling of the African population. Fig. 4-1, p. 96

11 Rural White Men and Women
Farmers typically had just enough land for themselves Adult children would rent other land Farms were typically mortgaged Not paid off until reaching late fifties Wives and daughters did household and close-in work on farm Married women, with few exceptions, did not own property Widows owned 8-10% of all property

12 POOR FARMER’S HOUSE Many poor Chesapeake farmers lived in a single room with a dirt floor, no interior walls, an unglazed window, and minimal furnishings. (Historic St. Mary’s City/PRC Archives) p. 99

13 Colonial Farmers and the Environment
Rapid expansion east of Appalachians Trees had to be cleared Game drove away Didn’t rotate crops Used manure, except with tobacco

14 MAP 4.1 IMMIGRATION AND BRITISH COLONIAL EXPANSION, TO 1755 Black majorities emerged in much of the Chesapeake tidewater and the Carolina-Georgia low country. Immigrants from Germany, Ireland, and Scotland predominated among the settlers in the Piedmont. A signifi cant Jewish population emerged in the seaports. Map 4-1, p. 97

15 The Urban Paradox Cities key to prosperity Poverty rose in cities
Only 4% of population by 1740 Few significant cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston Poverty rose in cities Women especially affected Changing labor patterns Move from apprentices and journeymen tradesmen to shorter term labor Wealth concentrated in small number of families

16 A NEW ENGLAND WOMAN’S CUPBOARD Modest prosperity enabled some married women to exercise power as consumers and even to express their individuality. Hannah Barnard, a Hadley, Massachusetts, farm woman, commissioned this cupboard for storing linens and other fi ne textiles, in about (Courtesy Ford Archives) p. 99

17 WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS Women shopkeepers were common in the cities, especially in trades that required only a small investment. These Boston women advertised imported garden seeds in a city newspaper. (Chicago Historical Society) p. 101

18 Slavery Owners spent just enough to keep slaves alive
40% of what was spent to maintain indentured servants Some food provided, forage or raise other food Creoles, American-born slaves Some slaves learned trades or worked in houses Task system allowed some slaves time to grow own crops and earn some money Gang system-work from dawn to dusk, sometimes longer Slaves could be rented out Black majority in South Carolina Restrictions on slaves

19 African Origins of Slaves Shipped by British 1692–1807

MAP 4.2 MAIN SOURCES OF AFRICAN SLAVES, ca. 1500–1800 The vast majority of enslaved Africans were taken to plantation colonies between Chesapeake Bay and the Brazilian coast. Map 4-2, p. 98

21 SLAVE CARGO ADVERTISEMENT, CHARLES TOWN, 1769 “Slavers,” as the shippers of enslaved Africans were known, sought buyers for their “cargo” upon reaching an American port. (Courtesy of American Antiquarian Society) p. 98

22 ASANTE DRUM Enslaved Africans carried their cultures with them to the Americas. This drum, made from African wood, was found in Virginia. (Trustees of the British Museum) p. 102

23 Stono Rebellion (1739) Slave uprising in SC Suppressed brutally
Strict slave codes enacted

24 The Rise of Colonial Elites
Small number became very wealthy Greater gentry 2% of population Owned 15% of all property Lesser Gentry Next 8% of population Owned 25% of property Imitated refinements of upper class in Europe Some would go on grand tour to Europe

MRS. HARME GANSEVOORT (MAGDALENA BOUW) BY PIETER VANDERLYN, C This New York “lady” personified the ideal of gentility, developed in the eighteenth century, as afluent colonists consciously emulated the lifestyles of English elites. (Courtesy, The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum) 04CO, p. 86

26 JOHN POTTER AND HIS FAMILY The Potters of Matunuck, Rhode Island, relax at tea. In commissioning a portrait depicting themselves at leisure and attended by a black slave, the Potters proclaimed their elite status. (Newport Historical Society) p. 105

27 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
French seek to strengthen hold in Mississippi Valley New Orleans established in 1718 Difficult life for all in Louisiana France tries to counter British in Ohio Valley French post of Detroit established English would offer better prices for goods French, in general, treated Indians better, but could be brutal French traders went into Rocky Mountains Bought buffalo hides and Indian slaves Great Plains and Great Basin Indians adopt horse and gun

28 HURON (WYANDOTTE) WOMAN Her cloth dress, glass beads, and iron hoe refl ect the infl uence of French trade on this woman and other Indians of the Great Lakes-Ohio region in the eighteenth century. (Mackinac State Historic Park Collections) p. 106

29 MAP 4.3 EUROPEAN OCCUPATION OF NORTH AMERICA, TO 1750 Spanish and French occupation depended on ties with Native Americans. By contrast, British colonists had dispossessed Native peoples and densely settled the eastern seaboard. Map 4-3, p. 110

30 Native Americans and British Expansion
Depopulation and dislocation of natives Conflict came early to Carolina Tuscarora War ( ) Yamasee War ( ) Covenant Chain Iroquois help English conquer other Indians Iroquois become most powerful Indian group

31 British Expansion in the South: Georgia
Gen. James Oglethorpe Unique experiment Military and philanthropic motives Counter Spanish presence in Florida Limited land holding Excluded Africans initially Excluded Catholics Prohibited rum Strictly regulated trade with natives Poor tradesmen and artisans England and Scotland Religious refugees Germany and Switzerland Lowest percentage of English

32 PLAN OF SAVANNAH, GEORGIA Georgia’s founders expected that Savannah would serve not only as a major port but as the command post for British forces in an anticipated confl ict with the Spanish in nearby Florida. (Georgia Historical Society collection of maps, MS 1361-MP, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia) p. 108

33 Congregation Mickve Israel
Founded 1733 Statue of James Oglethorpe Savannah, Georgia

34 Spain’s Borderlands Spain controlled much of SE and SW by 1750
Spread thin, sparsely populated Depended on support of Natives Americans

35 SLAVE-RAIDING EXPEDITION IN NEW MEXICO This surviving portion of a painting on buffalo hide, dating to the 1720s, depicts a Spanish soldier and allied Pueblo Indians as they attack an encampment, probably of Apaches. Women and children look on from behind a palisade surrounding the encampment. (Courtesy Museum of New Mexico, Neg. No ) p. 109

36 FORT MOSE This artist’s reconstruction of the free black community at St. Augustine is based on archaeological and documentary evidence. (Florida Museum of Natural History, Fort Mose Exhibition) p. 110

37 The Return of War, 1739-1748 King George’s War (1740-1748)
War between Britain and Spain War of the Austrian Succession in Europe New Englanders attack New France

38 PLAN OF LOUISBOURG, 1744 Built to defend New France, Louisbourg fell to New Englanders in 1745, but was returned to France by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). France would lose the fortress for good when British troops seized it in 1758 (covered in Chapter 5). (Fortress of Louisbourg, National Historic Site of Canada) p. 111

39 Colonial Politics Colonial assemblies a major force
Lower house elected by people Upper house appointed by governor Trial of Peter Zenger Encouraged broad political participation and discussion

40 SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Built in 1713, this building (now called “The Old State House”) housed the royal governor, his council, and the General Court (assembly). A public gallery (the fi rst in British America) in the General Court chamber enabled citizens to observe their elected legislators in action. (The Bostonian Society and Old State House Museum) p. 112

41 The Enlightenment Well educated population
Enlightenment combined human reason with skepticism Benjamin Franklin Embodied Enlightenment in America Science and public benefit

42 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN This earliest known portrait of Franklin dates to about 1740, when he was a rising leader in bustling Philadelphia. (Harvard University Art Museums, Fogg Art Museum, Bequest of Dr. John Collins Warren, 1856, H47 Photo: Imaging Department © President and Fellows of Harvard College) p. 114

43 The Great Awakening Surge of Protestant revivalism, beginning in 1739
Jonathan Edwards Congregationalist minister “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” George Whitefield Revival tour Unprecedented split in Protestantism New Lights vs. Old Lights New colleges formed Added to prominence of women in religion

44 GEORGE WHITEFIELD (Granger Collection)
p. 87

45 REVEREND SAMSON OCCOM, MOHEGAN INDIAN PREACHER Born in a wigwam in Connecticut, Occom converted to Christianity under the infl uence of the Great Awakening and preached to other Native Americans. But he grew disillusioned with the treatment of his people by whites. (Trustees of the Boston Public Library) p. 117

46 p. 118

47 US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010
The Bonds of Empire US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

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