Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire 1660-1750. Rebellion and War 1660-1713 Introduction –Salutary Neglect –Charles II 1660-1685 Expansion of trade Regulation."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire
Rebellion and War Introduction –Salutary Neglect –Charles II Expansion of trade Regulation of Economic Activities Benefits to English Economy and Commercial Interests
Royal Centralization Charles dreams of Absolute Monarchy similar to France Massachusetts Charter is revoked James II consolidates New England Colonies and abolished legislative assemblies to place authority in the hands of Royal Governor Edmond Andros
The Glorious Revolution in England and America James II forced into exile because of pro-Catholic actions and attempts at absolute rule William and Mary assume the throne and institute limited monarchy New England rebels and arrests Andros New England colonies once again granted colonial charters and allowed to organize assemblies. Leisler’s Rebellion in New York and Cooke’s uprising in Maryland were also associated with the Glorious Revolution.
A Generation of War British and French fought in two separate Wars King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War France still controlled America’s interior and colonists sought protection from the Mother country.
Colonial Economies and Societies Mercantilist Empires in America –Gold=Wealth=Power –Favorable Balance of Trade –Navigation Acts All trade must be carried out aboard British-owned ships –Tobacco, rice, indigo, furs, naval stores most go through England first. –The original acts did little to hamper the American economy
Immigration, Population Growth and Diversity 1.2 million population in British colonies 60,000 French colonies 19,000 Spanish colonies French and Catholics only allowed Catholics British North America continued to grow rapidly from African immigration in the 1700’s By % of the colonial population was African slaves
Rural White Men and Women Small farms Family labor Self-sufficient
Colonial Farmers and the Environment Deforestation Wood used for shelter, heat, fences etc. Animals became scarce Soil was depleted because of crops like tobacco with no fertilizer or crop rotation
The Urban Paradox 4 large cities Port Cities, Overcrowded, Unsanitary, Epidemics –Philadelphia –New York –Charles Town –Boston
Slavery’s Wages Stono Rebellion 1712 and 1741 Slave uprisings
The Rise of Colonial Elites Wealthy Rural elites Urban Commercial Elites Began to imitate their European counterparts
Competing for a Continent France and Native Americans –French founded New Orleans 1718 –Farming, Hunting, Fishing and trade with the Indians –Formed alliances with neighboring tribes while crushing those that stood in their way (Natchez)
Native Americans and British Expansion Tuscarora and Yamasee Wars vs. Carolinian expansion Pennsylvania convinced Delaware Indians to move to land adjacent the Iroquois and other eastern tribes were moved west
British Expansion in the South: Georgia Georgia is the last of the original 13 colonies to be established Founded by James Oglethorpe Protected Carolinas from Spain and was a safe haven for debtors from England German, Swiss, Scottish and Jewish settlers outnumber English Banned slavery Restrictions dropped
Spain’s Tenacity Spanish Empire spread throughout the Southwest and parts of the Southeast Spain made alliances with tribes they used to attack. Navajo and Apaches Spanish Outposts and Missions are built including the Alamo Spain tried to weaken the English colonies by offering freedom to their slaves
The Return of War: Britain and Spain fought each other along the Florida-Georgia border 1739 War of Austrian Succession/King George’s War , New Englanders vs. France
Public Life in British America Colonial Politics –English Bill of Rights –Power shifted from Royal Governors to Colonial Assemblies –Colonial Assemblies controlled Royal Governors through their salary –America became more self-governing, at least among the elites –Women, blacks and Indians could not vote –John Peter Zenger was acquitted on charges of libel which enforced freedom of speech.
The Enlightenment Emphasized reason, science, human improvement Diesm
The Great Awakening Christian Revivalism Jonathan Edwards William Tennent Theodore Frelinghuysen George Whitefield Christian Colleges- Princeton. Columbia, Brown, Dartmouth