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CHAPTER 4 The Bonds of Empire,

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 The Bonds of Empire,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 4 The Bonds of Empire, 1660-1750
1. How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? 2. What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? 3. What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America? 4. What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?

2 Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
Rebellion and War, Royal Centralization, English kings Charles II and James II took control of the British colonies by creating the royal colony of New Hampshire (1679), making Massachusetts a royal colony (1684), and creating the Dominion of New England In Sir Edmund Andros was the royally appointed governor of this new “supercolony”

3 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689
Rebellion and War, The Glorious Revolution, In 1688, William and Mary (Protestant/Anglican) oust James II (Catholic) who fled to France They set up a limited monarchy in England They dismantled the Dominion of New England, but kept a little more control than before the Dominion was created (esp. in Massachusetts) They reestablished representative govt. and religious freedom (for Protestants) The goal in the colonies was to have voluntary allegiance rather than involuntary submission

4 Rebellion and War, 1660-1713 A Generation of War, 1689-1713
King William’s War ( ): England vs. France In America: mostly border wars with New France, lost some allegiances from the Iroquois Confederacy Queen Anne’s War ( ): England vs. France and Spain In America: Colonists realized they were weak So… these wars showed that the colonists were militarily weak and still dependent on their mother country = renewed loyalty to Britain

5 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Mercantilist Empires in America Mercantilism worked well for Britain (and its colonies) It didn’t work so well for France and Spain Many colonists (British, French, and Spanish) just ignored the mainland’s policies and did their business privately MERCANTILISM

6 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Mercantilist Empires in America BRITISH NAVIGATION ACTS 1651: Trade only allowed on British (including colonial) ships 1660: Banned sale of certain items (i.e. sugar, tobacco, rice, furs) to foreign countries unless they first passed through England 1663: Placed high taxes on products bought outside the British Empire (i.e. French molasses) These Acts inadvertently helped the colonists by increasing the colonial merchant marine, shipbuilding industry, and urbanization around port cities

7 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Population Growth and Diversity English: 250, ,170,000 (20% were slaves) French: 15, ,000 Spanish: , ,000 WHY??? English: open to all Europeans focus on families French: open to French traders and missionaries Spanish: open to Spanish soldiers and missionaries

8 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Population Growth and Diversity British colonies had growth both from natural increase and from immigration Majority of European immigrants were poor and/or indentured servants (still) This is where they ended up There was also a huge increase in slaves, but way more slaves were still headed to the West Indies rather than America

9 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Rural White Men and Women Farming wasn’t a lucrative career choice Most farmers were in debt for most of their lives An increasing number of young men turned away from farming and looked to the frontier, port cities, or the high seas for a livelihood

10 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Colonial Farmers and the Environment Rapid deforestation caused… Removal of forest animals Addition of field animals Warmer summers and colder winters Unstable water levels in streams Huge decrease in fish population Dry and hard soil To make matters worse, the famers rarely used any fertilizers or methods to replenish the soil, such as crop rotation

11 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
The Urban Paradox Only 4% of colonists lived in cities, however… They became overcrowded There was poor sanitation This caused the spread of disease and early deaths There was high unemployment The wealth was highly concentrated

12 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
Slavery You know the conditions… very harsh Slaves worked from about 7 yrs. old ‘til death Men and women both performed hard labor What little time they had “off” work, they used to tend their own crops Rebellions were usually quickly and brutally suppressed by the fearful whites, such as the… STONO REBELLION (1739) in South Carolina

13 Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750
The Rise of the Colonial Elites The 18th century colonial elites began to show off their wealth by imitating the upper-crust Europeans Huge mansions Refined manners Fancy clothes Rode in carriages Expensive material goods Well-educated This led to even more of a desire by the colonists to acquire British consumer goods

14 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
France and the American Heartland 1718: France founds New Orleans and makes it the capital of Louisiana French had better relations with the Indians than the British, but not great French success was often dependent on their relations with the Indians

15 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
Native Americans and British Expansion British continued their alliance with some Indians (i.e. Iroquois), but mostly either killed them or dislocated them… Tuscarora War ( ): Dislocated the Tuscarora Indians out of Carolina (North) Yamasee War ( ): Dislocated the Yamasee Indians out of Carolina (South)

16 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
British Expansion in the South: Georgia Founded in 1732; led by James Oglethorpe Set up to be a haven for British debtors and a buffer colony from Spanish Florida No landholdings of over 500 acres No alcohol No representative government No slavery! Degraded blacks (according to Oglethorpe) Made whites lazy No slave revolts (near Spanish Florida) Wouldn’t help poor whites recover from debt Georgia didn’t really succeed until they let in slaves (1750) and large landholdings (1754)

17 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
Spain’s Borderlands Very sparsely populated in NM, TX, and FL They started having better relations with the Indians They offered freedom to any English-owned slaves who made it to FL and became Catholic

18 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
The Return of War, The War of Jenkins’ Ear/King George’s War ( ) This was mainly a war between England and France, but it spilled over to North America like prior European wars The main engagement in North America was when New Englanders captured the French fort at Louisbourg After the war, the British gave it back which improved international relations, but kinda ticked off the New Englanders who fought so hard… for nothing!

19 Public Life in British America, 1689-1750
Colonial Politics After the Glorious Revolution, the power shifted from here   to here because of this  Only white men could vote and colonial politics were dominated by the wealthy elite; yet it was still more democratic than in England Appointed Royal Governor Appointed Governor’s Council Elected Assembly

20 Public Life in British America, 1689-1750
The Enlightenment Based upon logic, reason, and science Epitome of Enlightenment in America was… More popular in cities (that’s where the educated people were) Many Enlightenment thinkers trusted in reason over the Bible and were Deists – they believed in God, but that He set things in motion and then stopped intervening BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

21 Public Life in British America, 1689-1750
The Great Awakening (1730s – 1740s) Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” George Whitefield New Lights: Old Lights: Emotional Rational Repentance Human Improvement Enthusiastic Reserved Decrease: Quakers & Anglicans (Old Lights) Increase: Baptists & Presbyterians (New Lights) Colleges (Old & New Light) Also: Crossed racial and gender lines

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