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ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS CHAPTER 2 The Fertile Crescent.

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Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS CHAPTER 2 The Fertile Crescent."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS CHAPTER 2 The Fertile Crescent

3 Chapter 2, Section 1 Land Between Two Rivers Day 1 Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: Read Map Master page 33 Complete the questions under Identify and Apply Information Agenda: Warm Up/Hand in Homework. Warm Up/Hand in Homework. Read pgs Read pgs Watch Petra: Secrets of the Read City – Discover School Watch Petra: Secrets of the Read City – Discover School Read Farming in Mesopotamia page 40 & 41 Read Farming in Mesopotamia page 40 & 41Homework: Finish Assessment on page 41 Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: Why does where matter? Under what conditions should human culture attempt to change the processes that shape the natural environment? What makes a place culturally unique? Under what conditions do cultures spread? How does the geography of where we live effect our lives?

4 Farming in Mesopotamia You’re going to create a Mesopotamian Farming manual You will have a total of 6 steps, describe the steps in order and next to each description draw a picture that represents the step. You will have a total of 6 steps, describe the steps in order and next to each description draw a picture that represents the step.

5 Steps to Farming in Mesopotamia 1. Local officials decided when to open flood gates 2. Animals grazed in soil to trample ground and eat weeds

6 Steps 1. Local officials decide when to let water flow onto crops 2. Farmers let animals graze in soil to trample and eat weeds. 3. Farmers break up the soil using hand tools 4. Spread seeds and plow 5. Plant seeds 6. Harvest the plants

7 Chapter 2, Section 1 Land Between Two Rivers Day 2 Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: Go over Homework - Assessment on page 41 Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language (united Streaming) Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language (united Streaming) Questions Questions Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers (united Streaming) Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers (united Streaming) Questions Questions Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: Why does where matter? Under what conditions should human culture attempt to change the processes that shape the natural environment? What makes a place culturally unique? Under what conditions do cultures spread? How does the geography of where we live effect our lives?

8 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language city-state Definition: A self-governing state consisting of a city and surrounding territory Context: Nippur was the most important city-state in Sumer. cuneiform Definition: The system of writing used by the ancient Sumerians Context: Cuneiform writing looks more like symbols than pictures. demon Definition: An evil spirit Context: According to Sumerian legend, Gilgamesh killed the demon Huwawa with the help of the sun god.

9 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language epic Definition: A long poem telling the deeds of a hero and often centering on the ideals of a nation or culture Context: The Epic of Gilgamesh teaches us to enjoy the time we have on Earth. immortality Definition: The quality or state of having an endless life Context: Gilgamesh was unable to achieve immortality, but he was able to leave behind a legacy through the work he had done during his lifetime. Mesopotamia Definition: An ancient land located where we find the modern country of Iraq Context: Mesopotamia means, “land between the rivers” and got its name because it was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Nippur Definition: A major city-state in the ancient Sumerian region of Mesopotamia Context: Nippur was a busy trading center in Sumer and its most important religious city.

10 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language scribe Definition: A person paid to write, especially in ancient times Context: Mesopotamian scribes worked closely with the priests and kings. stylus Definition: A hard, pointed writing tool cut from a reed Context: Sumerian scribe wrote with styluses they made from reeds. Sumerians Definition: Residents of Sumer, a region of the ancient land of Mesopotamia Context: The Sumerians developed many inventions, such as the wheel and the plow. tablet Definition: A flat slab – often of clay or stone – suitable for an inscription Context: The Sumerians etched symbols into wet clay tablets to create a permanent document of their activities.

11 Questions Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language 1. What was the importance of scribes in Mesopotamia? 2. Why did the scribes have greater access to the priests and kings than other people in the city- states? 3. How long did it take to train a scribe? 4. What is the name of the training school where scribes learn how to write?

12 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers. ancestors Definition: People in one’s family, from whom one is descended Context: Your ancestors include your grandparents, great grandparents, and great-great grandparents. cuneiform Definition: The system of writing used by the ancient Sumerians Context: Cuneiform writing consists of characters with wedge-shaped parts. domestication Definition: The taming of wild animals to use for farming or to be kept as pets Context: The domestication of sheep and goats helped the Mesopotamians become farmers. Euphrates River Definition: One of the rivers that borders what was the land of Mesopotamia. Context: The Euphrates River bordered Mesopotamia to the west.

13 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers. journal Definition: A record of personal experiences and thoughts kept on a regular basis Context: Writing a journal can help you understand yourself. levee Definition: Earthen dams constructed to hold back floodwaters Context: A levee system helped the Mesopotamians farm their most fertile land. Mesopotamia Definition: An ancient land located where we find the modern country of Iraq Context: Mesopotamia means, “land between the rivers” and got its name because it was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

14 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers. Nippur Definition: A major city-state in the ancient Sumerian region of Mesopotamia Context: Nippur was a busy trading center in Sumer and its most important religious city. scribe Definition: A person paid to write, especially in ancient times Context: The job of a scribe was considered important in Sumer. stylus Definition: A hard, pointed writing tool cut from a reed Context: Sumerians pressed the point of a stylus into wet clay in order to write.

15 Vocabulary Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers. Sumerians Definition: Residents of Sumer, a region of the ancient land of Mesopotamia Context: Sumerians developed a culture whose members farmed and traded instead of hunting and gathering to make a living. Tigris River Definition: One of the rivers that borders what was the land of Mesopotamia Context: The Tigris River bordered Mesopotamia to the east.

16 Questions Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers 1. Why did the ancient Sumerians look for new ways to produce their food? 2. How did growing crops and domesticating animals like sheep and goats allow the Sumerians to build cities and live in one place all year long? 3. What does the word “Mesopotamia” mean? 4. Between which rivers did Mesopotamia lie? 5. Why did the soil of the Mesopotamian region of Sumer grow such good crops? 6. What problem at first made farming difficult there and how did the Sumerians solve it?

17 Questions Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers 7. In what other way did the Sumerians control the rivers? 8. What important farming tool did the Sumerians invent? 9. What else did the Mesopotamians invent? 10. What do we call their system of writing? 11. What tools did the Mesopotamians use for writing? 12. What did the Sumerians put into writing before any other society? 13. What was the name of the temple where Sumerians believed their gods lived? 14. Of what material were the houses in Sumerian cities made?

18 Chapter 2 Section 2 Babylonia and Assyria Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: In your own words define the following words – Empire, Caravan, Bazaar Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up Read pgs Read pgs Have the students create a Venn Diagram like the one found on page 42. Have the students create a Venn Diagram like the one found on page 42. List appropriate details in the “Babylonia” circle. List appropriate details in the “Babylonia” circle. Read pgs Read pgs List appropriate details in the “Assyrians” circle. List appropriate details in the “Assyrians” circle. If there is time, Section 2 Assessment on page 46 If there is time, Section 2 Assessment on page 46 Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.

19 Assyria

20 Babylon

21 Babylonia v. Assyria Venn Diagram Mesopotamia Empires Babylonia Assyria Babylonia Assyria

22 Babylonia v. Assyria Venn Diagram Mesopotamia Empires Babylonia Assyria Babylonia Assyria

23 Chapter 2 Section 3 The Legacy of Mesopotamia Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: In this section you will learn of the advances made by the Mesopotamians, including the art of writing. Think about how your lives would different without writing. Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up Read pgs Read pgs Writing Activity Writing Activity Guided Reading Handout Guided Reading Handout Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: Why does where matter? Under what conditions should human culture attempt to change the processes that shape the natural environment? What makes a place culturally unique? Under what conditions do cultures spread? How does the geography of where we live effect our lives?

24 Writing Activity Read the quote on page 50 What do you think will happen to the gardeners according to Hammurabi’s Code, even after they pay for the dates? What do you think will happen to the gardeners according to Hammurabi’s Code, even after they pay for the dates? What do you think should happen to the gardeners? What do you think should happen to the gardeners?

25 The Fertile Crescent Chapter 2 Notes The Fertile Crescent Chapter 2 Notes Summary Stretching from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in present day Israel to the Persian Gulf, the Fertile Crescent was the birthplace of many early civilizations. Stretching from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in present day Israel to the Persian Gulf, the Fertile Crescent was the birthplace of many early civilizations. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided ideal conditions for human settlement, with the first civilizations rising in Mesopotamia, or the land between the rivers. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided ideal conditions for human settlement, with the first civilizations rising in Mesopotamia, or the land between the rivers.

26 Chapter 2 Section 4 Mediterranean Civilizations Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: What happens to a story as it is retold over a long period of time? What important development changed the way stories were told? Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up FETC FETC Read pgs Read pgs Map Master questions pg. 53 & 55 Map Master questions pg. 53 & 55 Section 4 assessment pg. 57 Section 4 assessment pg. 57 Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: Why does where matter? Under what conditions should human culture attempt to change the processes that shape the natural environment? What makes a place culturally unique? Under what conditions do cultures spread? How does the geography of where we live effect our lives?

27 Chapter 2 Section 5 Judaism Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: What is Monotheism (hint: see pg.55) Agenda: Warm up Warm up Read pages Read pages Notes for Chapter 2 Notes for Chapter 2 Writing Activity page 64 Writing Activity page 64 Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: Why does where matter? Under what conditions should human culture attempt to change the processes that shape the natural environment? What makes a place culturally unique? Under what conditions do cultures spread? How does the geography of where we live effect our lives?

28 Chapter 2 Review Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: Notes! Warm Up: Notes! Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up Study Guide Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: What were the beginnings of human society?What were the beginnings of human society? How has geography shaped the patterns of history?How has geography shaped the patterns of history? Mrs. White’s Class RULES!!!

29 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Section 1: Land Between Two Rivers Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These two rivers and the rich, fertile soil drew people to the region. Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These two rivers and the rich, fertile soil drew people to the region. The early people of Mesopotamia became farmers and then builders of cities. The most successful and advanced cities were the city-states of Sumer. The early people of Mesopotamia became farmers and then builders of cities. The most successful and advanced cities were the city-states of Sumer.

30 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Section 2: Babylonia and Assyria After the fall of Sumer, the biggest and most important civilizations were the empires of Babylonia and Assyria. After the fall of Sumer, the biggest and most important civilizations were the empires of Babylonia and Assyria. These civilizations built grand cities These civilizations built grand cities where culture and learning were where culture and learning were highly valued. highly valued.

31 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Section 3: The Legacy of Mesopotamia The Mesopotamians were probably the first to develop two of the key components of almost all civilizations—a system of writing and a set of written laws. The Mesopotamians were probably the first to develop two of the key components of almost all civilizations—a system of writing and a set of written laws.

32 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Section 4: Mediterranean Civilizations Phoenicia developed into a great sea power with trade routes throughout the Mediterranean region. Phoenicia developed into a great sea power with trade routes throughout the Mediterranean region. These trade routes brought great wealth and knowledge to the Phoenicians. These trade routes brought great wealth and knowledge to the Phoenicians. The Phoenicians developed a system of writing with an alphabet of 22 letters. This alphabet formed the basis of the alphabets that many nations use today. The Phoenicians developed a system of writing with an alphabet of 22 letters. This alphabet formed the basis of the alphabets that many nations use today.

33 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Section 5: Judaism To the Israelites, history and religion were closely joined and were recorded in the Torah. To the Israelites, history and religion were closely joined and were recorded in the Torah. The Israelites' beliefs developed into the religion we know today as Judaism. Judaism, still one of the world's major religions, had an important early influence on two later religions, Christianity and Islam. The Israelites' beliefs developed into the religion we know today as Judaism. Judaism, still one of the world's major religions, had an important early influence on two later religions, Christianity and Islam.

34 Chapter 2 Review The Fertile Crescent Geography Standard 1-4 History Standard 4 Warm Up: 1. Continue working on your study guide. 2. When you are done completing the Standardized Test Prep on page When you are done completing the Standardized Test Prep on page 67 Agenda: Warm Up Warm Up Study Guide Study Guide Review Review Chapter 1 Objectives: Students will: Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.Found out how geography made the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible. Learn about Sumer‘s first cities.Learn about Sumer‘s first cities. Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia.Learn about the two most important empires in Mesopotamia. Essential Question: What were the beginnings of human society?What were the beginnings of human society? How has geography shaped the patterns of history?How has geography shaped the patterns of history? STUDY, STUDY, STUDY … the test is tomorrow!!!

35 Directions: Name the concept represented by all the sections in the circle

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