6 What is a Civilization? Complex societies that have… - cities - organized governments- art- religion- class divisions- writing system
7 Why were river valleys important? Good farming conditionsProvided fish and freshwater to drinkProvided easy transportation routes for trade
8 FARMING IRRIGATION Floods often ruined crops. Farmers built irrigation systems to control floods.IRRIGATIONFarmers built walls, waterways and ditches to bring water to their fields.Helped food growth
13 Rise of Sumer A region in southern Mesopotamia Many cities formed there by 3000 B.C.Sumerian cities were isolated from each other because of GeographyEach Sumerian city became a separate City-State with its own government.
14 City-StateANY REGION THAT HAS ITS OWN GOVERNMENT AND IS NOT PART OF A LARGER UNIT.
15 Sumerians at WarSumerian city-states often went to war with each other.Fought for glory and control of territory.To protect their lands, each city-state surrounded itself with a strong brick walls made of river mud and crushed reeds.
16 Sumerian Beliefs Believed in many gods. Each god had power over natural forces or human activity (flooding, basket weaving)Each city-state built a temple called a ziggurat to honor its chief god.Ziggurat means “mountain of god”
18 Life in Sumer Kings lived in palaces Ordinary people lived in mud-brick houses.Some people were artisans. Artisans are skilled workers who make metal products, cloth or pottery.Most people farmed and others worked as merchants or traders.
19 Social Classes in Sumer People were divided into three classes.Rarely could one move up in class.
26 Sumerian Literature Oldest known story comes from Sumer Epic of GilgameshAn epic is a long poem that tells the story of a hero.
27 Other Inventions Wagon Wheel Plow Sailboat Geometry Number system based on 6012 month calendar
28 Sumerian City-States Lose Power The Akkadians from Northern Mesopotamia launched attacks on Sumerian City-States.Sargon, king of Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and created the worlds first empire.An empire is group of many different lands under one ruler.Sargon’s empire lasted 200 years.
29 BabylonA new group of people took over Mesopotamia in 1800s B.C. and built the city of Babylon.The Babylonian king was Hammurabi.Hammurabi created the Babylonian empire.
30 Code of HammurabiHammurabi is best known for his law code, or collection of laws.The code covered crimes, farming and business activities, and marriage and the family.Hammurabi’s code influenced later law codes, including those of Greece and Rome.