Presentation on theme: ""the land between the rivers""— Presentation transcript:
1"the land between the rivers" Mesopotamia"the land between the rivers"
2Mesopotamia Civilization between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Mesopotamia was part of the Fertile Crescent:An area of land that stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea in what is now Syria, northern Iraq, and Turkey.Rivers flooded at least once a year leaving a thick bed of mud where farmers could plant grain.
4Cultural DiffusionThe process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another.Sumerians exchanged products and ideas with neighboring cultures.
5Natural Resources Abundant supply of water from the rivers. Natural supply of food: fish, wildfowl, and dates from the date palm tree.Soil: used for both growing crops and making bricks and pottery.
6Environmental Challenges Unpredictable flooding, little or no rain.Irrigation method.No natural barriers for protection.For defense, they built city walls with mud bricks.Building materials were scarce.Traded their surplus of food with neighboring cultures for building supplies.
73500 B.C. to 530 B.C.At least seven different groups of people ruled the Mesopotamian Valley.Most important were the Sumerians and the Babylonians.
9Sumerians Create City-States One of the first groups of people to form a civilization.Sumer was different from all other earlier civilizations because of the following characteristics:Advanced citiesSpecialized workersComplex institutionsRecord keepingAdvanced technology
10Advanced Sumerian Cities Food SurplusIncreased PopulationExpanded TradeExpansion of Sumerian Society
11Specialized Workers in Sumer FarmersPottersGovernmentLeadersReligiousLeadersBuildersScribes
12Complex Sumerian Institutions GovernmentReligionOrganized set of laws.Government ruled from a central place, such as a city, a palace, or a temple.Sumerian civilization was organized into 12 separate units called city-states.Each city state ruled the city and its surrounding farmland.Each city-state belonged to a god or goddess that owned the land and controlled the yearly floods.Each city-state built a ziggurat, or temple, to honor its god or goddess.Sumerians believed that the gods and goddesses controlled everything that happened in their lives.
13Ziggurat. . . Made of sun-baked clay. Pyramid-shaped. Largest building, usually located in the center of the city.
14Religious Leaders. . . Very powerful. They controlled the land, collected and stored the crops, and owned large herds of sheep and cattle.
15Kings. . .Powerful role of the king developed because of disagreements between city-states.King was the military leader for the city-states.
16Sumerian Record Keeping Developed the first system of writing that was more than just pictures.Cuneiform:Wedge-shaped cuneiform symbols were made with a reed, called a stylus, pressed on wet clay tablets.The tablets were them baked in the sun or over fire until they were hard.Also wrote about wars, natural disasters, the reign of kings. . .Beginning of written history!!
18Advanced Sumerian Technology Wagon wheelPotter’s wheel (shape containers)Number system12 month calendarMetal plowSailSome of the earliest known mapsNew architecture
19From the Sumerians to the Babylonians Invaders took over the Sumerian lands and created new civilizations, borrowing much from the Sumerians.Around 2000 B.C. new invaders established Babylon as the center of their rule.By 1700 B.C. Babylon ruled most of Mesopotamia.The Babylonians did not complete destroy the Sumerian culture, they adopted much of it.Babylonian scribes wrote volumes of new texts using the Sumerian cuneiform. They even recopied Sumerian texts.First to use algebra and geometry.
20Soldiers, priest of high order, and landowners Babylonian SocietySociety was well organized.Soldiers, priest of high order, and landownersCraftspeople, traders, and farmersPoor people and slaves
21Hammurabi Came to power in 1792 B.C. Wanted to promote justice, destroy wicked people, and protect weak people from strong people.Hammurabi had 282 laws written on clay tablets.These laws are called the Code of Hammurabi and were displayed throughout Babylon.People understood the laws and what would happen if they failed to obey the laws.Hammurabi was the first ruler to organize laws into a complete system.