2 The First Civilization Mesopotamia (land between rivers)Oldest of the early civilizationsLocated in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates RiversBegan c B.C.ELocation in the Modern WorldIn the Middle East, in Iraq
5 The Fertile CrescentMesopotamia located between the Tigris and Euphrates riversPart of the Fertile CrescentFertile means “good for plants to grow in”
6 The Fertile CrescentRich farmland that reached fro the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea north to the Syrian Desert and south to the Persian Gulf5000 B.C.E, people call Sumerians settled in southern MesopotamiaBecame known as Sumer
7 The Fertile Crescent Sumerians built cities out of mud and clay 3500 B.C.E, Sumerian cities of Ur, Nippur, and Eridu had thousands of people living in them
9 Check for Understanding Match each term with a description from below.Site of the earliest civilizationRivers in MesopotamiaCities in SumerRich farmland on the Mediterranean SeaSettlers in southern MesopotamiaFertile CrescentMesopotamiaSumeriansUr and EriduTigris and Euphrates
10 Sumerian Achievements When we refer to the earliest Mesopotamian civilization, we are actually referring to the Sumerian civilizationSumerians were very inventive…they added 3 great achievements to early human history
11 The Wheel Before people had to move objects by hand or logs Sumerian wheels were made by attaching wooden planks together in a circleThen they could be added to carts
12 Irrigation and Flood Control Sumerians needed a way to keep crops watered during dry summers. Also needed protection from river floods.Sumerians dug canals and built dams to water crops and to control flooding.
13 Written Language Earliest writing used pictures to stand for words Not effective way of expressing thoughtsSumerians invented cuneiformWedge-shaped marksA scribe used a sharp stick and pressed it into a tablet of wet clay to make their marksTablet then left in the sun to dry
14 Other Inventions Number system based on 60 Lunar calendar based on the phases of the moonSailPlow
15 Check for Understanding True of FalseThe Sumerians invented the calendarThe Sumerians invented the wheel
16 Sumerian City-States 12 cities in Sumer Each city is referred to as a city stateCity-states often grew quite largeCity of Ur, 2500 BCE had about 20,000 people2000 BCE had about 200,000 peopleThe most important building in each city-state was the ziggurat
17 Check for Understanding True or FalseSumerian city-states were not very largeCity-states often went to war with other city-statesA city-state included the land around the city and any nearby villages
18 Life in Sumer Highest ranking class was the noble class King, king’s family, priests, and priestessesMost Sumerians were commonersMerchants, scribes, farmers, and skilled workersBelow commoners were laborsClass of people who worked for the nobles
19 Life in Sumer Men had most of the power School day was long Women were allowed by law to own property, start new businesses, or take over their husbands’ businessCould also hold important positionsSchool day was longBeginning at sunrise, ending at sunsetStudents were beaten if they were late, talked when they shouldn’t, and even if their clothes were messy
20 The City of Akkad and the First Empire City-states sometimes warred with each otherAkkadCity north of SumerPeople = AkkadiansCame to Mesopotamia from the deserts at the edge of the Fertile CrescentLearned Sumerian writing, followed the Sumerian religion and the Sumerian law
21 The City of Akkad and the First Empire Famous king names Sargon the GreatWanted LOTS of powerBy 2350 B.C.E, Sargon ruled all the Akkadian citiesWent on to control all the cities of SumerBy doing this he set up the world’s first empireHis empire lasted for about 200 years
22 Check for Understanding What was Akkad?Describe who King Sargon was.
23 The City of Babylon: A New Empire C B.C.E, Mesopotamia was invaded by the AmoritesBuilt village on Euphrates river called BabylonGreat ruler of Babylon was HammurabiPower hungryBy 1790, conquered other city-states and formed the Babylonian Empire
24 The City of Babylon: A New Empire Hammurabi’s greatest contribution was the Code of HammurabiSingle set of laws for every person in his empireCode of Hammurabi contains over 280 laws
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