Presentation on theme: "Warm – Up 2/2/12 In a paragraph, relate the following key vocabulary words to one another. Civilization Nomad Paleolithic Neolithic Stone Age Domestication."— Presentation transcript:
Warm – Up 2/2/12 In a paragraph, relate the following key vocabulary words to one another. Civilization Nomad Paleolithic Neolithic Stone Age Domestication Hunting and Gathering
Warm – up 2/3/2012 The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the only pieces of literature we have from Mesopotamian civilizations. It was found in Ashurbanipals library in Assyria. Turn to page 35 in your textbook and read the excerpt from The Epic of Gilgamesh. Then answer the Critical Thinking questions in the bottom right-hand corner.
Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Chapter 2 Section 1
The Impact of Geography Fertile Crescent – Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Mesopotamia (between the rivers) – Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Modern Day Iraq. Consistent agriculture. Large food supply population growth
Ancient Mesopotamia covered three general areas: Assyria, Akkad, and Sumer.
The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia The Sumerians developed the first Mesopotamian civilization. City-states Ziggurat
Ziggurat – contained temple
The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia Theocratic government Religion and government overlap Priests played large leadership roles until Kings began to take over.
Sumerian Economy Mostly agricultural, but industry and trade were also important.
Sumerian Social Classes (Class system example) 1.Nobles (royalty, royal officials, and priests) owned the land 2.Commoners worked as farmers (90%), merchants, fishermen, and craftsmen. 3.Slaves worked on building projects and as servants of the nobles.
Beginnings of Empires 1790 B.C.E. Babylonian empire became the first to unite much of Mesopotamia. Led by Hammurabi –Wrote the worlds first law code and applied it throughout his empire.
Hammurabis Code One of the worlds earliest systems of law. Eye for an eye Punishments varied according to social status.
Warm – Up 2/6 1.A __________________ was a massive stepped tower found in Mesopotamian city-states; on top was the temple, the most important building in each city. 2.What does Mesopotamia mean? 3.What kind of government did city-states in Mesopotamia establish? 4.Who established the Babylonian Empire and wrote the first law code?
The Persians Babylon fell to the Persian armies of Cyrus the Great. Established the largest empire in the world (Turkey, Iran, Egypt, & Afghanistan) Practiced tolerance towards the people they conquered. Switched to a money economy (goods and services are paid for through the exchange of some token of an agreed value).
Religion in Mesopotamia Believed the world was controlled by destructive supernatural forces and deities. Polytheistic
The Importance of Religion Sumerians – human beings were created to do the manual labor the gods were not willing to do. The Epic of Gilgamesh –Preserved in Assyrian King Ashurbanipals library
The Creativity of the Sumerians Importance of Writing Cuneiform – Sumerian writing, on clay tablets Writing was used for record keeping, teaching, law, etc.
The Creativity of the Sumerians Advances in science and technology –Inventions –Math –Engineering –Astronomy Sumerian star map wheel Number system based on 60 (how we get 60 minutes per hour)
The Phoenicians Great sea traders and sailors. Created the first alphabet.
Maternalistic v. Paternalistic Maternalistic society (Matriarchy): girls rule, boys drool! Paternalistic society (Patriarchy): men rule