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BICYCLE TESTING SERVICES SGS GROUP Revision: Sep, 2014 Presenter:

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1 BICYCLE TESTING SERVICES SGS GROUP Revision: Sep, 2014 Presenter:

2 2 Topics in the presentation About SGS Market Trends in Bicycles Product Risk Factors Global Legislative Overview for Assembled Bicycles Electric bikes  Battery chargers  Battery  Wireless control

3 3 SGS HISTORY World’s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification company Founded in 1878 Listed on the Swiss Stock Exchange in 1981 Member of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes since 2010 Current structure of ten business units initiated in 2003

4 4 TRUSTED FOR REAL LIFE Your challenges: Deliver desirable, safe and sustainable products. Ensure quality, performance and compliance with local and international requirements. Reduce product related risk. Eliminate defects at the early stages of production. Manage social and environmental impacts of products throughout lifecycle. Substantiate product claims to maintain a competitive edge. Achieve a faster time to market, avoiding regulatory and non- compliance bottlenecks.

5 5 About 100 laboratories and over 16,400 employees - about 900 in Americas, 3,200 in Europe and Africa and 12,300 in Asia January 2013 CONSUMER GOODS & RETAIL THE SGS LAB NETWORK

6 6 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS Customers expect safety, comfort, better control and optimal power in all conditions. Many models with a variety of equipment, adapted to customer’s profile:  Children’s Bicycles: parents required components that adjust to fit the growth spurts.  Bicycles for adults: they require products with added-value, including specific design, high technology (suspension…), ergonomics and comfort. Bicycle accessories sales should grow in the next years. Demand for bicycle use across all member states in Europe, together with the USA. Increasing demand for the rent of bicycles in the city - environmental concerns, money savings. Increasing sales of electrical bicycles.

7 7 PRODUCT RISKS A number of notifications of unsafe bicycle-related products have been issued: Risk of injuries – defective, unsafe and inconsistent production of bicycles  Poorly written instructions for use and maintenance.  Inconsistent and poorly manufactured components having an impact on the safety of the bicycle, including pedal detachment, the purge cap can be lost on the brake lever affecting braking quality, the handle bar stem can present signs of fatigue and crack. Chemical risk  Bicycle repair kit presented a chemical risk because the benzene content was higher than that permitted under the Chemical Restriction Directive. Benzene is classified as a Cat 1 carcinogen, the risk is posed by contact and inhalation.

8 8 LEGISLATION According to the destination markets, your bicycles need to comply with standards below, which specify safety, quality and performance requirements for the design, sub-assembly tests: LEGAL REQUIREMENTS International standards: ISO 4210, ISO 8098 America: ANSI Z315.1, CPSC 1512 (16 CFR 1512), ASTM F 1975, ASTM F 2273 Australia: AS /NZS 1927, AS /NZS 8124 Japan: JIS D 9301, JIS D 9302, CPSA 0052 Europe  The CEN safety standards - EN 14764, EN 14766, EN 14781, EN – have been published in the EU Official Journal. Bicycles that comply with these standards are presumed to conform with the EU GPSD that “lays down an obligation on producers to place only safe products on the market”.  EN 14765: safety standard for bicycles for young children (not published yet)  Toy bicycles are covered by the Toy Safety Directive (EN 71-1)  EN (Electrically Power Assisted Cycles - EPAC)  National regulations: BS 6102, NF R30-020, DIN 79100, DIN 79105, GB 14746, GB ASSOCIATED REQUIREMENTS In addition there are “bolt-on” requirements that are only used for the country of sale (environmental or local laws). E.g.: UK has “Pedal Cycle Regulations” that list the requirements for assembly instructions, brake set up and the need for an appropriate bell and lighting.

9 9 Electric bikes Generally not toys & children products 16CFR 1512 Bicycles 20mph; 750W  can be bicycles Different rules and regulations in each state Pedelec Moped Dual mode

10 10 Electric bikes Performance Testing– created by LEVA & SGS More details

11 11 Electric bikes- EU Pedelec  powered not only by motor  Speed/ power limit  Can be ridden on bike lane  Consumer product// CE marking Moped// Dual mode  Any point exceeding pedelec definition  Cannot be ridden on bike lane  E-mark  Number plate  Riders shall have drive license

12 12 Electric bikes- Accessories Battery chargers  UL/ SGS Mark  DOE(EPA) energy efficiency: Min. Level V (Voluntary, the higher level the better)  CEC energy efficiency- BC logo – on IM, package or package (Mandatory in California)  FCC

13 13 Electric bikes- Accessories Battery  Safety for Cell  Safety for Pack- brand owner may ask to have UL/SGS Mark  UN 38.3 –Or 49 CFR Part –Transportation safety–esp. Air freight. –Requested by courier company- Fedex, DHL, UPS –Approval document shall be provided upon request –Safety warning shall be provided on outer package

14 14 Electric bikes- Accessories Battery Public law: Mercury-Containing Battery Management Act Storage temperature: labeled on product Battery Recycle

15 15 Electric bikes- Accessories Wireless control  Can be utilized on Display/ Motor/ Battery  Popular techniques:  Must have FCC ID Number on case, or  CONTAINS FCC ID number (Module) FCC ID ______________ CONTAINS __________

16 16 WHY SGS? WE HELP YOU PROTECT YOUR BRAND. MAKE SURE YOUR BICYCLES MEET ALL STANDARDS FOR THE UNITED STATES, EUROPE, AUSTRALIA AND JAPAN! Test reports from SGS accredited labs will be considered as the bicycle’s ‘passport’, providing confidence in the quality, performance and safety of the bicycle. Benefit from extent SGS resources and expertise. Safety standards can have a huge impact on your business. It is essential that you understand their interpretation. Guarantee your customers’ satisfaction. Be proactive and meet markets needs.

17 17 PRODUCTS COVERED City /Trekking Bicycle Mountain Bicycle Racing Bicycle Children’s Bicycle Electrically Power Assisted Cycle (EPAC)

18 18 SGS TESTING SERVICES SGS help you ensure the safety, the quality and the performance of individual parts as well as the bicycle as a whole through: 1. Mechanical/ Physical Tests  Stability, durability, impact and fatigue test  Strength and loading test  Brake heat-resistance test  Vibration test (frame & handle bar)  Energy absorption test (frame & front fork)  Tensile test  Rotational accuracy  Comparative testing  Rigidity, Stability, Construction, Assembly, Endurance, Lifecycle test 2. Specific Tests for electrical compliance for EPAC  Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Directive)  Water/ Dust Proof Test IP Sub assembly tests and components: Frame, fork and components, brakes, pedals and pedal/crank drive system, saddles and seat-pillar, chain, chain guard, lighting systems and reflectors, wheels, rims, tyres and tubes…

19 19 SGS TESTING SERVICES 3. Chemical Tests  Determination of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Chromium VI) on bicycles and bicycle accessories –Europe (EN 71-3), US CPSIA –California (Proposition 65): Lead, Cadmium. Phthalates Several Court cases relating to bicycle components and accessories, Bicycle helmets, Bicycle Lock, Aluminum water bottles –in May 2007 the restriction of lead content in PVC ‘Grips’ and ‘Cables’ that are composed of or housed in thermoplastic and that are 1) on the bicycle at the time that is sold to consumers or 2) sold separately as replacement parts for those components.  Morphology analysis  Determination of phthalates on any product made of plasticized material (specific requirements for US, EU and Japanese markets)  Restriction of PAH on any material with oil as ingredient (rubber-made products such as pedals and grips) in the German market

20 20 SGS RELATED SERVICES SGS offers a range of added-value services associated with bicycles, including assistance with: Technical documentation Warning Advice Manufacturer’s Instructions  Assembling method and recommendations on general maintenance.  The use category of the bicycle  How to adjust the saddles height to suit the rider with an explanation of insertion-depth warning marks on the sear-pillar and handlebar-stem. Marking Inspection Audit SGS offers Standards & Regulations Services (SRS): being successful in the bike business in Europe requires detailed knowledge on the European laws and regulations for bicycles and bike products. SGS can assist you to market your products in Europe and worldwide.

21 21 All bicycle components – Chemical case Reference: San Francisco Court Case No. CGC Applied Product Bicycles (Bicycles and Tricycles) – Grips and / or brake or Derailleur Cables that are Housed in Thermoplastic PVC components refer to a) grips, cables, saddles and handlebar tape that are composed of or housed in thermoplastic that are i) on bicycles at the time it is being sold to consumers ii) sold separately as replacement parts for those components or b) any thermoplastic component of a Bicycle Accessory product

22 22 All bicycle components – Chemical case Requirement 1)For Grips A)≤ 300 ppm for grips on bicycles having wheels that measure over 20 inches in diameter B)≤ 30 ppm for grips on bicycles having wheels that measure 20 inches or less in diameter 2)For clothing which is a bicycle accessory product (including bicycle-related protective gear, gloves and shoes) A)≤ 300 ppm for the thermoplastic / PVC elements if the clothing item in question is (1) not marketed for use by children 6 years of age or under, and (2) has less than 65% of the surface area of the Surface Contact Area comprised of PVC / thermoplastic B)≤ 30 ppm for the thermoplastic / PVC elements if the clothing item in question is (1) marketed for use by children 6 years of age or under, or (2) has 65% or more of the surface area of the Surface Contact Area comprised of PVC / thermoplastic

23 23 All bicycle components – Chemical case Requirement (cont.) 3)≤ 300 ppm for all other PVC components 4)≤ 600 ppm lead and ≤ 0.48 % (4, 800 ppm) cadmium (Outer surface contact layer of painted components). If a painted component is coated with a clear material intended to be durable, the above-stated standards for lead and cadmium will apply to the clear coating rather than the material underlying it WARNING: handling this product will expose you to chemicals, including lead, known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling

24 24 All bicycle components – Chemical case Non-exclusive list of example of Bicycle Accessory product Auto rack Bar tape Bells/ horns Bicycle mounted racks Bicycle storage racks Bicycle computers Bicycle mirrors BMX pads/ pegs Clothing / shoes Helmets Kickstands Lights Locks Pumps Reflectors Repair stands Tools Trainers Training handles/ wheels Water bottle/ cages Water/ hydro packs

25 25 Bicycle Helmet – Chemical Case Ca 65 court case No. CIV for children helmet, phthalates and Lead content(accessible materials) Sporting products:- a) Miniature-sized and regular- sized vinyl (or similar synthetic material) containing baseball gloves designed for and reasonably used by children through 12 years of age b) Other sporting goods including to but not limited to balls, bats, gloves and helmets designed for and reasonably used by children through 12 years of age Reference Held vs Easton Sports, Inc., Easton-Bell Sports, Inc. and Does 1 through 150, inclusive, County of Marin Court Case No.: CIV Method (lead) EPA 3050B Reformulated Products ≤ 1,000 ppm DEHP, DBP or BBP and ≤ 300 ppm lead (accessible materials)

26 26 Water Bottle FDA/Regulation EC 1935/2004 Leakage Test Drop Test Handle Strength Ca 65 court case No. CV for aluminum water bottles only Aluminum Water Bottles Reference CEN vs Dollar Tree County of Marin Case No. CV Method EPA 3051 or 3050B Reformulation Any product or component part (including but not limited to the paint or other surface coating of the product)  90 ppm Lead

27 27 Bicycle Lock Lock Attachment Chain / Cable Strength Corrosion Test Ca 65 court case No. RG for Anti-Theft Device for bicycle, DEHP content (accessible component) Steering wheel lock, Anti-Theft Device for Bicycles Reference CAG vs Winner International County of Alameda Case No. RG Reformulated Products < 0.1% DEHP Accessible component means any component of a covered product that could be touched by a person during reasonably foreseeable use.

28 28 Bicycle Basket Loading capacity Strength of Attachment Resistance to corrosion Ca 65 court case No. CIV for Basket, Lead content(any accessible component) Basket Reference Brimer v. Gresham, Joseph and Reitan Inc County of Marin Case No. CIV Reformulation Accessible component < 100 ppm Lead (EPA 3050B and 6010B), and < 1.0 μg Lead (NIOSH 9100) Accessible component means any leather, synthetic leather or poly vinyl chloride (PVC), vinyl or other soft plastic component or material that can be touched by a person during reasonably foreseeable use.

29 29 Chemical- Total Lead RegulationCPSIA AnalyticsCPSC-CH-E1001/1002/1003 Limit90 mg/kg for coating 100 mg/kg for substrate CommentsLead is toxic and found in plastic commonly. Target material Coating, plastic, metal

30 30 Chemical Requirement- Phthalates Content RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII/ CPSIA AnalyticsEN or EN Limit 1.EU: sum of BBP, DBP, DEHP ≤ 0.1% ; sum of DINP, DONP, DIDP≤ 0.1% 2.CPSIA: BBP, DBP, DEHP, DINP, DONP, DIDP ≤ 0.1% HazardousPhthalates can migrate from the plastic into body by sucking, licking or chewing. Phthalates can be determined as carcinogenic compounds to disturb the hormone system. CommentsThough phthalates should not be placed in toys and childcare article which is defined as any product intended to facilitate sleep, relaxation, hygiene, the feeding of children or sucking on the part of children, children still have chance to lick and sucking on the sporting products such as buckles on children helmet. For this reason, phthalate is still a high risk substance for children.

31 31 Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Azo dye RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII Limit30 mg/kg Analytics ⅰ ) LFGB § 64 BVL B ,EN :2012 natural material ( ≥95% for example, cotton ) ⅱ ) LFGB § 64 BVL B ,EN :2012 Artificial fiber iii) ISO17234 Genuine Leather iv) EN : 2012 Mixture form (natural material + artificial fiber (Natural material<95%) Target material Leather, fabric, textile

32 32 Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Cadmium RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII Limit100mg/kg AnalyticsEN 1122 HazardousCadmium and its compounds are carcinogenic Target materials coating, plastic, polymer, plasticized treatment textile.

33 33 Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Organotin compounds RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII AnalyticsISO 17353:2004 Limit1.Sum of TBT/ TPhT/ TCyT and TOT should not exceed the limit of 0.1% 2.DOT and DBT should not exceed the limit of 0.1% respectively. Target meterial Coating, textile, plastic HazardousOrganotin compounds are suspected to be endocrine disrupters. Biocides (antibacterials) and or heat stabilizer in plastic.

34 34 Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Cr (VI) RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII AnalyticsDIN / ISO Limit3mg/kg HazardousHexavalent chromium is classified as a carcinogen and case allergies. CommentsCr (VI) is the side product in the tanning process of leather manufacturing industry. Target material Leather

35 35 Thank You!


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