Presentation on theme: "BICYCLE TESTING SERVICES SGS GROUP"— Presentation transcript:
1BICYCLE TESTING SERVICES SGS GROUP Presenter:Revision: Sep, 2014
2Topics in the presentation About SGSMarket Trends in BicyclesProduct Risk FactorsGlobal Legislative Overview for Assembled BicyclesElectric bikesBattery chargersBatteryWireless control
3SGS HISTORYWorld’s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification companyFounded in 1878Listed on the Swiss Stock Exchange in 1981Member of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes since 2010Current structure of ten business units initiated in 2003A little more than 130 years ago, SGS was founded in Rouen, France, as a grain inspection company. Since that moment, we have grown through diversification and acquisition into the world’s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification company.Throughout the early and mid 20th century, we expanded beyond our core offering in agricultural inspection to activities in minerals, oil, gas, chemicals, consumer goods and industrial services. By 1980, half of our revenue was generated from services that had not even existed in 1970, adding expertise in automotive, environmental, certification, governmental and life science services. In 1981, SGS became a publicly traded company on the Swiss Stock Exchange.The 1990s opened up tremendous opportunity for us as trade barriers fell and new markets emerged. By the start of the new millennium, a wide-ranging corporate restructuring led to the formation of the ten businesses that are now found at SGS.From our beginnings in 1878 as a grain inspection house, we have steadily grown into our role as the industry leader. We have done this through continual improvement and innovation and by reducing risk and improving the productivity and efficiency of our customers’ operations. Moving forward, we are well positioned for growth and will continue to look beyond customers’ and society’s expectations in order to deliver market leading services wherever they are needed.3
4TRUSTED FOR REAL LIFE Your challenges: Deliver desirable, safe and sustainable products.Ensure quality, performance and compliance with local and international requirements.Reduce product related risk.Eliminate defects at the early stages of production.Manage social and environmental impacts of products throughout lifecycle.Substantiate product claims to maintain a competitive edge.Achieve a faster time to market, avoiding regulatory and non-compliance bottlenecks.4
5CONSUMER GOODS & RETAIL THE SGS LAB NETWORK About 100 laboratories and over 16,400 employees - about 900 in Americas, 3,200 in Europe and Africa and 12,300 in AsiaJanuary 2013
6GLOBAL MARKET TRENDSCustomers expect safety, comfort, better control and optimal power in all conditions.Many models with a variety of equipment, adapted to customer’s profile:Children’s Bicycles: parents required components that adjust to fit the growth spurts.Bicycles for adults: they require products with added-value, including specific design, high technology (suspension…), ergonomics and comfort.Bicycle accessories sales should grow in the next years.Demand for bicycle use across all member states in Europe, together with the USA.Increasing demand for the rent of bicycles in the city - environmental concerns, money savings.Increasing sales of electrical bicycles.
7PRODUCT RISKSA number of notifications of unsafe bicycle-related products have been issued:Risk of injuries – defective, unsafe and inconsistent production of bicyclesPoorly written instructions for use and maintenance.Inconsistent and poorly manufactured components having an impact on the safety of the bicycle, including pedal detachment, the purge cap can be lost on the brake lever affecting braking quality, the handle bar stem can present signs of fatigue and crack.Chemical riskBicycle repair kit presented a chemical risk because the benzene content was higher than that permitted under the Chemical Restriction Directive. Benzene is classified as a Cat 1 carcinogen, the risk is posed by contact and inhalation.
8LEGISLATIONAccording to the destination markets, your bicycles need to comply with standards below, which specify safety, quality and performance requirements for the design, sub-assembly tests:LEGAL REQUIREMENTSInternational standards: ISO 4210, ISO 8098America: ANSI Z315.1, CPSC 1512 (16 CFR 1512), ASTM F 1975, ASTM F 2273Australia: AS /NZS 1927, AS /NZS 8124Japan: JIS D 9301, JIS D 9302, CPSA 0052EuropeThe CEN safety standards - EN 14764, EN 14766, EN 14781, EN – have been published in the EU Official Journal. Bicycles that comply with these standards are presumed to conform with the EU GPSD that “lays down an obligation on producers to place only safe products on the market”.EN 14765: safety standard for bicycles for young children (not published yet)Toy bicycles are covered by the Toy Safety Directive (EN 71-1)EN (Electrically Power Assisted Cycles - EPAC)National regulations: BS 6102, NF R30-020, DIN 79100, DIN 79105, GB 14746, GB 14747ASSOCIATED REQUIREMENTSIn addition there are “bolt-on” requirements that are only used for the country of sale (environmental or local laws). E.g.: UK has “Pedal Cycle Regulations” that list the requirements for assembly instructions, brake set up and the need for an appropriate bell and lighting.
9Electric bikes Generally not toys & children products 16CFR 1512 Bicycles20mph; 750W can be bicyclesDifferent rules and regulations in each statePedelecMopedDual mode
10Electric bikes Performance Testing– created by LEVA & SGS More details This hyperlink connects to the other file- LEVA performance test by Michael DeVisser.
11Electric bikes- EU Pedelec powered not only by motor Speed/ power limitCan be ridden on bike laneConsumer product// CE markingMoped// Dual modeAny point exceeding pedelec definitionCannot be ridden on bike laneE-markNumber plateRiders shall have drive license
12Electric bikes- Accessories Battery chargersUL/ SGS MarkDOE(EPA) energy efficiency: Min. Level V (Voluntary, the higher level the better)CEC energy efficiency- BC logo – on IM, package or package (Mandatory in California)FCC
13Electric bikes- Accessories BatterySafety for CellSafety for Pack- brand owner may ask to have UL/SGS MarkUN 38.3Or 49 CFR Part 171.7Transportation safety–esp. Air freight.Requested by courier company- Fedex, DHL, UPSApproval document shall be provided upon requestSafety warning shall be provided on outer package
15Electric bikes- Accessories Wireless controlCan be utilized on Display/ Motor/ BatteryPopular techniques:Must have FCC ID Number on case, orCONTAINS FCC ID number (Module)FCC ID ______________CONTAINS __________
16WHY SGS? WE HELP YOU PROTECT YOUR BRAND. MAKE SURE YOUR BICYCLES MEET ALL STANDARDS FOR THE UNITED STATES, EUROPE, AUSTRALIA AND JAPAN!Test reports from SGS accredited labs will be considered as the bicycle’s ‘passport’, providing confidence in the quality, performance and safety of the bicycle.Benefit from extent SGS resources and expertise. Safety standards can have a huge impact on your business. It is essential that you understand their interpretation.Guarantee your customers’ satisfaction.Be proactive and meet markets needs.
17PRODUCTS COVERED City /Trekking Bicycle Mountain Bicycle Racing BicycleChildren’s BicycleElectrically Power Assisted Cycle (EPAC)
18SGS TESTING SERVICESSGS help you ensure the safety, the quality and the performance of individual parts as well as the bicycle as a whole through:1. Mechanical/ Physical TestsStability, durability, impact and fatigue testStrength and loading testBrake heat-resistance testVibration test (frame & handle bar)Energy absorption test (frame & front fork)Tensile testRotational accuracyComparative testingRigidity, Stability, Construction, Assembly, Endurance, Lifecycle test2. Specific Tests for electrical compliance for EPACElectromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Directive)Water/ Dust Proof Test IPSub assembly tests and components:Frame, fork and components, brakes, pedals and pedal/crank drive system, saddles and seat-pillar, chain, chain guard, lighting systems and reflectors, wheels, rims, tyres and tubes…
19SGS TESTING SERVICES3. Chemical TestsDetermination of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Chromium VI) on bicycles and bicycle accessoriesEurope (EN 71-3), US CPSIACalifornia (Proposition 65): Lead, Cadmium. PhthalatesSeveral Court cases relating to bicycle components and accessories, Bicycle helmets, Bicycle Lock, Aluminum water bottlesin May 2007 the restriction of lead content in PVC ‘Grips’ and ‘Cables’ that are composed of or housed in thermoplastic and that are 1) on the bicycle at the time that is sold to consumers or 2) sold separately as replacement parts for those components.Morphology analysisDetermination of phthalates on any product made of plasticized material (specific requirements for US, EU and Japanese markets)Restriction of PAH on any material with oil as ingredient (rubber-made products such as pedals and grips) in the German market
20SGS RELATED SERVICESSGS offers a range of added-value services associated with bicycles, including assistance with:Technical documentationWarning AdviceManufacturer’s InstructionsAssembling method and recommendations on general maintenance.The use category of the bicycleHow to adjust the saddles height to suit the rider with an explanation of insertion-depth warning marks on the sear-pillar and handlebar-stem.MarkingInspectionAuditSGS offers Standards & Regulations Services (SRS): being successful in the bike business in Europe requires detailed knowledge on the European laws and regulations for bicycles and bike products. SGS can assist you to market your products in Europe and worldwide.
21All bicycle components – Chemical case Reference:San Francisco Court Case No. CGCApplied ProductBicycles (Bicycles and Tricycles) – Grips and / or brake or Derailleur Cables that are Housed in ThermoplasticPVC components refer toa) grips, cables, saddles and handlebar tape that are composed of or housed in thermoplastic that arei) on bicycles at the time it is being sold to consumersii) sold separately as replacement parts for those components orb) any thermoplastic component of a Bicycle Accessory product
22All bicycle components – Chemical case RequirementFor Grips≤ 300 ppm for grips on bicycles having wheels that measure over 20 inches in diameter≤ 30 ppm for grips on bicycles having wheels that measure 20 inches or less in diameterFor clothing which is a bicycle accessory product (including bicycle-related protective gear, gloves and shoes)≤ 300 ppm for the thermoplastic / PVC elements if the clothing item in question is (1) not marketed for use by children 6 years of age or under, and (2) has less than 65% of the surface area of the Surface Contact Area comprised of PVC / thermoplastic≤ 30 ppm for the thermoplastic / PVC elements if the clothing item in question is (1) marketed for use by children 6 years of age or under, or (2) has 65% or more of the surface area of the Surface Contact Area comprised of PVC / thermoplastic
23All bicycle components – Chemical case Requirement (cont.)≤ 300 ppm for all other PVC components≤ 600 ppm lead and ≤ 0.48 % (4, 800 ppm) cadmium (Outer surface contact layer of painted components). If a painted component is coated with a clear material intended to be durable, the above-stated standards for lead and cadmium will apply to the clear coating rather than the material underlying itWARNING: handling this product will expose you to chemicals, including lead, known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling
24All bicycle components – Chemical case Non-exclusive list of example of Bicycle Accessory productAuto rackBar tapeBells/ hornsBicycle mounted racksBicycle storage racksBicycle computersBicycle mirrorsBMX pads/ pegsClothing / shoesHelmetsKickstandsLightsLocksPumpsReflectorsRepair standsToolsTrainersTraining handles/ wheelsWater bottle/ cagesWater/ hydro packs
25Bicycle Helmet – Chemical Case Ca 65 court case No. CIV for children helmet, phthalates and Lead content(accessible materials)Sporting products:-a) Miniature-sized and regular-sized vinyl (or similar synthetic material) containing baseball gloves designed for and reasonably used by children through 12 years of ageb) Other sporting goods including to but not limited to balls, bats, gloves and helmets designed for and reasonably used by children through 12 years of ageReferenceHeld vs Easton Sports, Inc., Easton-Bell Sports, Inc. and Does 1 through 150, inclusive,County of Marin Court Case No.: CIVMethod (lead)EPA 3050BReformulated Products≤ 1,000 ppm DEHP, DBP or BBP and≤ 300 ppm lead (accessible materials)
26Water Bottle FDA/Regulation EC 1935/2004 Leakage Test Drop Test Handle StrengthCa 65 court case No. CV for aluminum water bottles onlyAluminum Water BottlesReferenceCEN vs Dollar TreeCounty of MarinCase No. CVMethodEPA 3051 or 3050B ReformulationAny product or component part (including but not limited to the paint or other surface coating of the product) 90 ppm Lead
27Bicycle Lock Lock Attachment Chain / Cable Strength Corrosion Test Ca 65 court case No. RG for Anti-Theft Device for bicycle, DEHP content (accessible component)Steering wheel lock,Anti-Theft Device for BicyclesReferenceCAG vs Winner InternationalCounty of AlamedaCase No. RGReformulated Products< 0.1% DEHPAccessible component means any component of a covered product that could be touched by a person during reasonably foreseeable use.
28Bicycle Basket Loading capacity Strength of Attachment Resistance to corrosionCa 65 court case No. CIV for Basket, Lead content(any accessible component)BasketReferenceBrimer v. Gresham, Joseph and Reitan IncCounty of MarinCase No. CIVReformulationAccessible component< 100 ppm Lead (EPA 3050B and 6010B), and< 1.0 μg Lead (NIOSH 9100)Accessible component means any leather, synthetic leather or poly vinyl chloride (PVC), vinyl or other soft plastic component or material that can be touched by a person during reasonably foreseeable use.
29Chemical- Total Lead Regulation CPSIA Analytics CPSC-CH-E1001/1002/1003Limit90 mg/kg for coating100 mg/kg for substrateCommentsLead is toxic and found in plastic commonly.Target materialCoating, plastic, metal
30Chemical Requirement- Phthalates Content RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVII/ CPSIAAnalyticsEN or EN 15777LimitEU: sum of BBP, DBP, DEHP ≤ 0.1%；sum of DINP, DONP, DIDP≤ 0.1%CPSIA: BBP, DBP, DEHP, DINP, DONP, DIDP ≤ 0.1%HazardousPhthalates can migrate from the plastic into body by sucking, licking or chewing. Phthalates can be determined as carcinogenic compounds to disturb the hormone system.CommentsThough phthalates should not be placed in toys and childcare article which is defined as any product intended to facilitate sleep, relaxation, hygiene, the feeding of children or sucking on the part of children, children still have chance to lick and sucking on the sporting products such as buckles on children helmet. For this reason, phthalate is still a high risk substance for children.
31Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Azo dye RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVIILimit30 mg/kgAnalyticsⅰ) LFGB § 64 BVL B ,EN :2012 natural material（≥95% for example, cotton )ⅱ) LFGB § 64 BVL B ,EN :2012 Artificial fiberiii) ISO17234 Genuine Leatheriv) EN ：2012 Mixture form (natural material + artificial fiber (Natural material<95%)Target materialLeather, fabric, textile
32Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Cadmium RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVIILimit100mg/kgAnalyticsEN 1122HazardousCadmium and its compounds are carcinogenicTarget materialscoating, plastic, polymer, plasticized treatment textile.
33Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Organotin compounds RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVIIAnalyticsISO 17353:2004LimitSum of TBT/ TPhT/ TCyT and TOT should not exceed the limit of 0.1%DOT and DBT should not exceed the limit of 0.1% respectively.Target meterialCoating, textile, plasticHazardousOrganotin compounds are suspected to be endocrine disrupters.Biocides (antibacterials) and or heat stabilizer in plastic.
34Additional EU Chemical Requirement- Cr (VI) RegulationEC 1907/2006 Annex XVIIAnalyticsDIN / ISO 17075Limit3mg/kgHazardousHexavalent chromium is classified as a carcinogen and case allergies.CommentsCr (VI) is the side product in the tanning process of leather manufacturing industry.Target materialLeather