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The National Standards and Quality System Jean-Louis Racine The World Bank Cambridge, England April 19, 2007 Knowledge Economy Forum VI Technology Acquisition.

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Presentation on theme: "The National Standards and Quality System Jean-Louis Racine The World Bank Cambridge, England April 19, 2007 Knowledge Economy Forum VI Technology Acquisition."— Presentation transcript:

1 The National Standards and Quality System Jean-Louis Racine The World Bank Cambridge, England April 19, 2007 Knowledge Economy Forum VI Technology Acquisition and Knowledge Networks

2 2 A Snapshot of the National Standards and Quality System National and international consumers, public health and safety, natural environment Firms and other organizations National accreditation body Conformity assessment bodies National standards body National metrology institute

3 3 Outline An Introduction to Standards The Standards Development Process The Conformity Assessment System Standards and International Integration

4 4 An Introduction to Standards

5 5 Types of Technical Standards: by Function Information and reference standards Variety- reducing standards Compatibility and interface standards Minimum quality and safety standards M10 x 1.5-6g-S

6 6 An Introduction to Standards Types of Technical Standards: by Author National standards (e.g. BS) Regional standards (e.g. EN) International standards (e.g. ISO) Sponsored standards (e.g. Adobe pdf file format) Formal standards: standards bodies Market standards: industry Unsponsored standards (e.g. computer keyboard layout)

7 7 An Introduction to Standards Types of Technical Standards: by Enforceability Voluntary (e.g. ISO14001) Mandatory (e.g. technical regulations, EU Old Approach Directives) Global supply chains (e.g. ISO/TS for auto parts manufacturers)

8 8 An Introduction to Standards Benefits of standards Diffuse technology Diffuse market information Diffuse information on safety, health and environmental regulations Allow for specialization and economies of scale Facilitate trade (especially shared standards) Reduce transaction and search costs Allow to harness network externalities Increase competition by promoting interchangeability

9 9 The Standards Development Process

10 10 The Standards Development Process Primary national standards body -Accredits -Supervises National standards body/ies In decentralized systems only Technical committees -Votes on standards -Approves standards -Publishes standards Public (consumers, industry, government, non-profits) Coordinates standards program Develops technical content Comments on drafts At the national level: Propose new standards Submits drafts for public review

11 11 The Standards Development Process At the international and regional level: –International standards organizations: ISO, IEC, ITU –Regional standards organizations: CEN, CENELEC for EU/EFTA EuroAsian Interstate Council for CIS –National participation in standards development is open and voluntary

12 12 The Conformity Assessment Framework

13 13 The Conformity Assessment Framework Certification –Provision of assurance that a product, service, system, process or material conforms to one or more standards or specifications –Often conducted by an independent third-party –Typically involves a number of competing private certification bodies

14 14 The Conformity Assessment Framework Worldwide total of ISO 9000 certificates (ISO 9001 after 2004) Source: ISO (2006)

15 15 The Conformity Assessment Framework Testing, Calibration and Inspection –Testing determines the characteristics or performance of a product or process according to a specific procedure –Inspection relies on less sophisticated instruments than testing –Calibration involves the determination of a measurements input and the magnitude or response of its output (accuracy & precision) –Can be done internally or by an independent private body –May be required to implement a quality control system

16 16 The Conformity Assessment Framework Accreditation –Formal recognition that an organization or person is competent to carry out specific tasks E.g. Certification bodies, inspection bodies, testing laboratories and calibration laboratories –Accreditation is done against a specific standard –Typically sought on a voluntary basis –Most countries have a single national accreditation body

17 17 The Conformity Assessment Framework Metrology –The study of a system of measures –A National Metrology Institute Establishes the national measurement system Develops and diffuses measurement standards for basic units Diffuses metrological expertise in the economy Measuring length with an interferometer at the UK National Physical Laboratory Source: UK NPL website

18 18 The Conformity Assessment Framework National and international consumers, public health and safety, natural environment Retailers, traders, students Manufacturers, repairers, installers, researchers, universities The diffusion of measurement units, precision and accuracy in the economy National metrology institute Calibration laboratories

19 19 The Conformity Assessment Framework National and international consumers, public health and safety, natural environment Firms and other organizations National accreditation body Conformity assessment bodies: certification bodies, inspection bodies, calibration laboratories, testing laboratories National standards body National metrology institute Definition of units Calibration certificates Accreditation Accreditation body standards Conformity assessment body standards Product, process, material and system standards Certification, inspection, testing and calibration certificates -Enhanced quality, interoperability and compatibility -New technologies -Enhanced safety and health -Decreased environmental impact -Reduced search costs -Enhanced quality, interoperability and compatibility -New technologies -Enhanced safety and health -Decreased environmental impact -Reduced search costs

20 20 Standards and International Integration

21 21 Standards and International Integration National metrology institute National standards body National accreditation body Testing labs Calibration labs Inspection bodies Certification bodies Firms Consumers & the general public Exports compliant with regional and global standards Quality, compatibility, safety, health Regional and international standards & mutual recognition agreements Conformity assessment Accreditation Standards Calibrations Standards

22 22 Standards and International Integration National metrology institute National standards body National accreditation body Testing labs Calibration labs Inspection bodies Certification bodies Firms Consumers & the general public Exports compliant with regional and global standards Quality, compatibility, safety, health Conformity assessment Accreditation Standards Calibrations Standards

23 23 Standards and International Integration National metrology institute National standards body National accreditation body Testing labs Calibration labs Inspection bodies Certification bodies Firms Consumers & the general public Exports compliant with regional and global standards Quality, compatibility, safety, health Regional and international standards & mutual recognition agreements Conformity assessment

24 24 Standards and International Integration National metrology institute National standards body National accreditation body Testing labs Calibration labs Inspection bodies Certification bodies Firms Consumers & the general public Exports compliant with regional and global standards Quality, compatibility, safety, health Regional and international standards & mutual recognition agreements Accreditation Standards Calibrations

25 25 Standards and International Integration National metrology institute National standards body National accreditation body Testing labs Calibration labs Inspection bodies Certification bodies Firms Consumers & the general public Exports compliant with regional and global standards Quality, compatibility, safety, health Regional and international standards & mutual recognition agreements Conformity assessment Accreditation Standards Calibrations Standards


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