2Topics What is critical thinking? 10 logical fallacies An amazing case study in deceptionAmazing creatures
3Thinking About Thinking! Critical thinking is the art of thinking about your thinking while you are thinking in order to make your thinking betterWhat did he say?
4The Purpose of Critical Thinking Critical thinking involves the use of questioning or inquiry techniquesThe purpose of critical thinking is to:Achieve understandingEvaluate view pointsSolve problemsThis is why evolutionists do not want critical thinking in the biology class
5PART 110 tactics and logical fallacies used to discredit creation and promote evolutionism
6Fuzzy Words 1 We believe, we think Given enough time, it will happen Might workMust have…“Those life forms must have evolved in the absence of oxygen,…”Biology, Miller and Levine, 2002, p. 426.Could possibly have beenMy guess isSeems like
7Half Truth Half true and half false 2Half TruthHalf true and half falseOften more effective than the complete lieThe Second Law of Thermodynamics only applies to isolated systems, so it is not relevant to evolution, because the earth is an open system.
8Bandwagon www.AnswersInGenesis.org www.ICR.org 3BandwagonThe appeal to “everyone agrees”All scientists accept evolutionNo real scientist accepts creation
94RidiculeAttempting to provoke a dislike against a person or idea by name-callingCreationists are troglodytes and flat-earthers.
105Either-Or FallacyPresenting only one possible solution when others are justifiedIf we teach creation then we will have to teach every other creation myth.
116AnalogyImproperly drawing parallels while ignoring pertinent differencesEvolution is a fact like digestion or gravity.
12Shifting the Burden of Proof 7Shifting the Burden of ProofForgetting that it is your responsibility to prove a claim, not your opponents to disprove it.The claim that creation has no proof and therefore should not be taught, when evolution has never been proven or is even capable of proof.
138EquivocationConfusing the issue by using vague terms or changing the definitions of wordsChanging the definition of science to support only evolutionNot defining terms such as natural selection or microevolution
14Bluffing Appearing to know more than you do 9BluffingAppearing to know more than you doMaking the claim that the fossil record is full of transitional fossilsDinosaurs evolved into birds.
15Appeasement The appeal that we're not really so different 10AppeasementThe appeal that we're not really so differentMost religions don’t have a problem with evolution.
16Lucy and the Australopithecines An Amazing Case Studyin DeceptionLucy and the Australopithecines
17Critical ThinkingWhat we see and read in textbooks is not always what was found or real
18What do you notice about this picture? Pictures and RealityArtistic conceptionAustralopithecusafricanusWhat do you notice about this picture?
19Evolutionary Preconception John Gurche, artist, National Geographic, March, 1996 p. 109.“I wanted to get a human soul into this ape-like face, to indicate something about where he was headed.”
20Lucy: Two Questions What was found? Did Lucy walk upright? Note: Lucy is our ancestor
21What Was Found? Lucy discovered in 1974 About 40% of the fossil was foundClaimed to be 3.5 million years oldClaimed bipedalPicture of Lucy from: Biology: Understanding Life Third Edition, 2000
23Did Lucy Walk Upright The rib cage The pelvis Leg and foot bones To determine if Lucy walked upright three areas of anatomy can be examinedThe rib cageThe pelvisLeg and foot bones
24Rib Cage Ape ribs are conical shaped Human ribs are barrel-like Human: Barrel-likeApe: Conical shape
25Lucy’s Rib CagePeter Schmid (paleontologist at the Anthropological Institute in Zurich) Quoted from Origins reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human by Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin“I noticed that the ribs [Lucy] were more round in cross-section, more like what you see in apes. Human ribs are flatter in cross-section.But the shape of the rib cage itself was the biggest surprise of all. The human rib cage is barrel shaped, and I just couldn’t get Lucy’s ribs to fit this kind of shape.”
26Lucy’s Rib CageBrad Harrub (Ph.D. Anatomy and Neurobiology) and Bert Thompson (Ph.D. Microbiology), The Truth About Human Origins, 2003, p. 47.“In Lucy’s case, her ribs are conical, like those found in apes.”HumanLucy
28Lucy’s PelvisJ. Stern & R. Sussman, “American Journal ofPhysical Anthropology,” 1983, pp. 291 & 292.“The marked resemblance of AL (Lucy) to the chimpanzee is equally obvious…It suggests to us that the mechanism of lateral pelvic balance during bipedalism was closer to that in apes than in humans.”
30How Evolution Hinders Critical Thinking and Science Rib cagePelvisCarrying angleLucy could NOT walk uprightHow Evolution Hinders Critical Thinking and ScienceFootprints in History
31Which footprint is human? Apes and Humans – a TestHumanThis is not hard to distinguishWhich footprint is human?
32Who made these footprints? Laetoli FootprintsFootprints discovered in 1978 in Laetoli, Tanzania. The footprints were dated at 3.5 million years old.Who made these footprints?
33Ape and Human Footprints Human ShapeApe(Lucy)HumanLaetoli footprint
34Who made these footprints? Human FootprintsTim White, “Evolutionary Implications of Pliocene Hominid Footprints,” Science, April 1989, p. 175.“The uneroded footprints show a total morphological pattern like seen in modern humans.”Who made these footprints?
35Lucy’s FeetDavid Catchpoole, Ph.D., “New evidence: Lucy was a knuckle-walker”,“…anatomist Dr. Charles Oxnard has shown that the big toe [Lucy’s] actually sticks out as in chimpanzees.”
36What will the evolutionists do? A DilemmaThe footprints in Tanzania are human in shapeLucy’s feet are ape-likeThe footprints are 3.5 million years old therefore they cannot be made by humansWhat will the evolutionists do?
37Lucy: What Nice Feet You Have Drawing from Life: The Science of Biology, Purves, Orians, and Heller, 1992, p. 604.
39Evolution Rejects the Evidence “Professor Betsy Schumann, evolutionist expert, admits that the statue's feet ‘probably are not accurate’, but when asked whether the statue should be changed, she says,In other words, evolution must use bad science to deceive peopleCreation ex nihilo, Dec 1996, p.52.‘Absolutely not’.”
40Why aren’t students told about this? Confusion about LucyRobert Boyd and Joan Silk, (professors of anthropology), How Humans Evolved, 2000, pp“Anatomical evidence indicates that A. afarensis was bipedal…”…some anthropologists are convinced by the anatomical evidence that A. afarensis was not a modern biped.”Why the confusion?Why aren’t students told about this?
4110 Unique Characteristics Fine balanceFlat faceUpright skullStraight backFully extendable hip jointsAngled femur bonesFully extendable knee jointsLong legsArched feetStrong big toesAll these deal with being bipedalFINE BALANCE: Requires a fine sense of balance. The inner ear has a network of fluid-filled canals which contain sensors which are sensitive to movement and gravity. The sensors consist of fine hairs which send out signals to indicate direction and speed. Humans have a more complex inner ear design than apesFLAT FACE: So their eyes have a field of view which extends down to the ground in front of the feet.UPRIGHT SKULL: the position at which the spinal cord enters the skull. In humans it is located at the bottom of the skull. This means the most natural position for the head is looking forward in the upright position.STRAIGHT BACK: This is ideal for upright posture because the torso and head are directly above the hips in the standing position. Apes have a curved back.FULLY EXTENDABLE FEMUR BONES: When looking from the front humans have femur bones which are angled inwards as they come down from the hip. This has the effect of making the knees and feet closer together. Having feet closer together keeps the feet nearly under the center of the body and gives stability during walking and running. During walking and running the body is supported by one leg at any instant and so the body can topple over if the legs are not right under the body. If the feet were not close together then the body would be thrown from side to sideFULLY EXTENDABLE KNEE JOINTS:VERY LONG LEGS: The length of human legs is about half the total body. This makes it possible to walk and run for long distances with relative ease. In contrast, apes are only about a third.ARCHED FEET: The human foot is arched between the ball of the foot and the toes. The foot has around 26 bones and many muscles and ligaments, tendons and nerves so the foot can flex between the heel and the ball. The arched structure of the foot makes it easy for a person to press down on the ball for the foot which is important for balance and control. This ability is also important for movements such as standing on tiptoe, running and turning. It also helps absorb shocks during walking and running. In contrast the feet and hands of apes are like hands suited for grasping.STRONG BIG TOES: This feature is important for walking and running. For each step, the final push from the ground comes from the big toe. In order to propel the body forwards in a controlled manner, the big toe must be very strong. Apes have a toe designed for grasping. They cannot make a firm push from their big toe.
42Textbooks and Accuracy 2Eye socket3Flatter face1TeethBiology: The Web of Life, 1993
49Chuckwalla Table Manners Pass the pepper and chuckwalla pleaseChuckwalla and salt
50Chicken Egg Each shell has about 10,000 tiny holes or pores Question: How does the chicken form a shell around a soft, messy egg and design the shell with pores?Blood vessels
51Chicken Egg Nineteenth day the chick is too big The “egg-tooth” Each step of the chicks development defies evolutionary thinking
52True Science The history of astronomy The history of geology The history of biologyThe history of anthropology
53Tuning Up Our Baloney Detector Let’s go baloney huntingFalse informationMisleading informationDeception by omissionPure baloney
54Biology: Visualizing Life, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1998, p. 221. “Another important find was the footprints of a group of bipedal animals…They reveal small but very humanlike feet,…”Baloney DetectorBaloney
55Biology: Principles and Explorations, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2001, p. 307. “Lucy’s leg bones indicate that she must have walked upright. She stood about 1 m (3 ft) tall.”Baloney DetectorBaloney
56Biology: Concepts and Connections, 2000, p. 404. “Some 3.7 million years ago, several bipedal (upright-walking) human animals of the species Australopithecus afarensis left footprints in damp volcanic ash in what is now Tanzania in East Africa.”Baloney DetectorBaloney
57Biology, Miller and Levine, Prentice Hall, 2000, p. 757. “But all researchers agree on certain basic facts. We know, for example, that humans evolved from ancestors we share with other living primates such as chimpanzees and apes.”Baloney DetectorBaloney
58Artist’s depiction of an australopithecine family Biology Concepts and Connections, Campbell, Mitchell, and Reece, 2000, p. 404.Baloney DetectorBaloney
59Baloney “An animal dies and sinks into shallow water.” Prentice hall, Science Explorer: Earth Science, 2002“An animal dies and sinks into shallow water.”Baloney DetectorBaloney
60Scientific American, July, 2002 UN-Scientific American, July, 2002“… laying the foundation for cellular biochemistry. Astrochemical analysis hint that quantities of these compounds might have originated in space and fallen to earth in comets, a scenario that may solve the problem of how these constituents arose under the conditions that prevailed when our planet was young.”Baloney DetectorBaloney
61Colossians 2:8 (A Warning) Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ