Presentation on theme: "Modals and semi-modals. Modals Can, may, must… They are the same for all persons. You must pay attention. They dont need an auxiliary verb for questions."— Presentation transcript:
Modals and semi-modals
Modals Can, may, must… They are the same for all persons. You must pay attention. They dont need an auxiliary verb for questions and negatives: You shouldnt swim when its windy. Should I stay with you? Two modal verbs cant be used in the same phrase: I will can play again next month (*). Semi-modals Be able to, have to They arent the same for all persons. You have to pay attention / She has to pay attention. They may need an auxiliary for questions and negatives: You dont have to say youre sorry. Do we have to speak in English? Theyre used when the modals cant be used. I will be able to play again next month.
SIMPLE MODALS Must / have toObligationI must go to the hospital Logical deduction (only must)The film must be very good. Everybody likes it. CantLogical deductionThis person cant be Michael. Hes too short. Dont have toLack of obligationYou dont have to say you love me. Mustnt / cantProhibition We mustnt smoke at school. We cant skip classes. Can (past, could) / be able to Ability She can swim very fast. I couldnt concentrate yesterday. Next year, I will be able to speak three languages. Should / ought toAdviceYou should listen to your teachers. May / mightPossibilityIt may rain this afternoon. Its very cloudy. Can / could / maypermissionCan I come in, please? ShallOffering (used only in questions and with 1 st persons)Shall we continue? Shall I give you my phone number?
PERFECT MODALS PERFECT MODALS: MODAL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Should haveCriticism about a past action You should have made a bigger effort. You shouldnt have used the present simple so often. Must have Logical deduction about something in the past It must have been love, but its over now. You must have worked very hard. I can see youre so tired! Could have Ability to have done something which wasnt done. You could have written some more. Couldnt haveDisbeliefYou couldnt have finished so quickly. Its impossible! Neednt haveAn unnecessary past action You neednt have brought that bottle of wine. We have got plenty of it here. Might / may have Guessing about a possibility in the past She might have forgotten to do her homework. Would havePast conditional: you wanted to do something, but you couldnt I would have gone to her party, but I wasnt invited.