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ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Understanding Groups and Teams Chapter 15
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Understanding Groups Define the different types of groups.Define the different types of groups. Describe the five stages of group development.Describe the five stages of group development. Explaining Work Group Behavior Explain the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction.Explain the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction. Discuss how roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, and group cohesiveness influence group behavior.Discuss how roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, and group cohesiveness influence group behavior. Explain how group norms can both help and hurt an organization.Explain how group norms can both help and hurt an organization. Define groupthink and social loafing.Define groupthink and social loafing.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Explaining Work Group Behavior (cont’d) Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and productivity.Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and productivity. Discuss how conflict management influences group behavior.Discuss how conflict management influences group behavior. Tell the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.Tell the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making. Creating Effective Teams Compare groups and teams.Compare groups and teams. Explain why teams have become so popular in organizations.Explain why teams have become so popular in organizations. Describe the four most common types of teams.Describe the four most common types of teams.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) List the characteristics of effective teams.List the characteristics of effective teams. Current Challenges in Managing Teams Discuss the challenges of managing global teamsDiscuss the challenges of managing global teams Explain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teams.Explain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teams.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–5 Understanding Groups GroupGroup Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Formal groups Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks. –Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–6 Exhibit 15–1Examples of Formal Groups Command GroupsCommand Groups Groups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task GroupsTask Groups Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–7 Exhibit 15–1Examples of Formal Groups (cont’d) Cross-Functional TeamsCross-Functional Teams Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others’ jobs. Self-Managed TeamsSelf-Managed Teams Groups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–8 Stages in Group Development FormingForming Members join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. StormingStorming Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership. NormingNorming Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior. PerformingPerforming A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand. AdjourningAdjourning The group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–9 Exhibit 15–2Stages of Group Development
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–10 Exhibit 15–3Group Behavior Model
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–11 Work Group Behavior Internal Variables Affecting Group BehaviorInternal Variables Affecting Group Behavior The individual abilities of the group’s members The size of the group The level of conflict The internal pressures on members to conform to the group’s norms
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–12 Conditions Affecting Group Behavior External (Organizational) ConditionsExternal (Organizational) Conditions Overall strategy Authority structures Formal regulations Available organizational resources Employee selection criteria Performance management (appraisal) system Organizational culture General physical layout Internal Group VariablesInternal Group Variables Individual competencies and traits of members Group structure Size of the group Cohesiveness and the level of intragroup conflict Internal pressures on members to conform o the group’s norms
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–13 Group Structure RoleRole The set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit that assist the group in task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction. Role conflict: experiencing differing role expectations Role ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectations
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–14 Group Structure (cont’d) NormsNorms Acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members. Common types of normsCommon types of norms Effort and performance Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing Dress Loyalty
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–15 Group Structure (cont’d) ConformityConformity Individuals conform in order to be accepted by groups. Group pressures can have an effect on an individual member’s judgment and attitudes. The effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force. Groupthink The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–16 Exhibit 15–4Examples of Cards Used in the Asch Study
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–17 Group Structure (cont’d) Status SystemStatus System The formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator. Formal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–18 Group Structure: Group Size Small groupsSmall groups Complete tasks faster than larger groups. Make more effective use of facts. Large groupsLarge groups Solve problems better than small groups. Are good for getting diverse input. Are more effective in fact- finding. Social LoafingSocial Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when work individually.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–19 Group Structure (cont’d) Group CohesivenessGroup Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals. Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–20 Exhibit 15–5The Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–21 Group Processes: Group Decision Making AdvantagesAdvantages Generates more complete information and knowledge. Generates more diverse alternatives. Increases acceptance of a solution. Increases legitimacy of decision. DisadvantagesDisadvantages Time consuming Minority domination Pressures to conform Ambiguous responsibility
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–22 Exhibit 15–6Group versus Individual Decision Making Criteria of Effectiveness Groups Individuals Accuracy Speed Creativity Degree of acceptance Efficiency
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–23 Exhibit 15–7Techniques for Making More Creative Group Decisions
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–24 Group Processes: Conflict Management ConflictConflict The perceived incompatible differences in a group resulting in some form of interference with or opposition to its assigned tasks. Traditional view: conflict must be avoided. Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and is absolutely necessary for effective group performance.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–25 Group Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d) Categories of ConflictCategories of Conflict Functional conflicts are constructive. Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive. Types of ConflictTypes of Conflict Task conflict: content and goals of the work Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationships Process conflict: how the work gets done
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–26 Exhibit 15–8Conflict and Group Performance
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–27 Group Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d) Techniques to Reduce Conflict:Techniques to Reduce Conflict: Avoidance Accommodation Forcing Compromise Collaboration
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–28 Exhibit 15–9Conflict-Management Techniques Source: Adapted from K.W. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, 2d ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p With permission
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–29 Group Tasks and Group Effectiveness Highly complex and interdependent tasks require:Highly complex and interdependent tasks require: Effective communications: discussion among group members. Controlled conflict: More interaction among group members.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–30 What Is a Team? Work TeamWork Team A group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills. Types of TeamsTypes of Teams Problem-solving teams Self-managed work teams Cross-functional teams Virtual teams
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–31 Exhibit 15–10Groups versus Teams
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–32 Types of Teams Problem-solving TeamsProblem-solving Teams Employees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Self-managed Work TeamsSelf-managed Work Teams A formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete work process or segment.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–33 Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-functional TeamsCross-functional Teams A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks. Virtual TeamsVirtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–34 Advantages of Using Teams Teams outperform individuals.Teams outperform individuals. Teams provide a way to better use employee talents.Teams provide a way to better use employee talents. Teams are more flexible and responsive.Teams are more flexible and responsive. Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–35 Exhibit 15–11Characteristics of Effective Teams
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–36 Characteristics of Effective Teams Have a clear understanding of their goals.Have a clear understanding of their goals. Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills.Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills. Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members.Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members. Are unified in their commitment to team goals.Are unified in their commitment to team goals. Have good communication systems.Have good communication systems. Possess effective negotiating skillsPossess effective negotiating skills Have appropriate leadershipHave appropriate leadership Have both internally and externally supportive environmentsHave both internally and externally supportive environments
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–37 Current Challenges in Managing Teams Getting employees to:Getting employees to: Cooperate with others Share information Confront differences Sublimate personal interest for the greater good of the team
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–38 Managing Global Teams Group Member ResourcesGroup Member Resources Unique cultural characteristics of team members Avoiding stereotyping Group StructureGroup Structure Conformity—less groupthink Status—varies in importance among cultures Social loafing—predominately a Western bias Cohesiveness—more difficult to achieve Group processes—capitalize on diverse ideasGroup processes—capitalize on diverse ideas Manager’s role—a communicator sensitive to the type of globe team to use.Manager’s role—a communicator sensitive to the type of globe team to use.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–39 Exhibit 15–12Drawbacks and Benefits of Global Teams
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–40 Understanding Social Networks Social NetworkSocial Network The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups The Importance of Social NetworksThe Importance of Social Networks Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–41 Terms to Know groupgroup formingforming stormingstorming normingnorming performingperforming adjourningadjourning rolerole normsnorms groupthinkgroupthink statusstatus social loafingsocial loafing group cohesivenessgroup cohesiveness conflictconflict traditional view of conflicttraditional view of conflict human relations view of conflicthuman relations view of conflict interactionist view of conflictinteractionist view of conflict functional conflictsfunctional conflicts dysfunctional conflictsdysfunctional conflicts task conflicttask conflict relationship conflictrelationship conflict process conflictprocess conflict work teamswork teams
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–42 Terms to Know problem-solving teamproblem-solving team self-managed work teamself-managed work team cross-functional teamcross-functional team virtual teamvirtual team social network structuresocial network structure
8 th edition Steven P. Robbins Mary Coulter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
Understanding Groups & Teams Ch 15. Understanding Groups Group Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular.
Ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition, Global Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter.
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