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Ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Understanding Groups and Teams Chapter 15

2 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Understanding Groups Define the different types of groups.Define the different types of groups. Describe the five stages of group development.Describe the five stages of group development. Explaining Work Group Behavior Explain the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction.Explain the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction. Discuss how roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, and group cohesiveness influence group behavior.Discuss how roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, and group cohesiveness influence group behavior. Explain how group norms can both help and hurt an organization.Explain how group norms can both help and hurt an organization. Define groupthink and social loafing.Define groupthink and social loafing.

3 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (contd) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Explaining Work Group Behavior (contd) Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and productivity.Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and productivity. Discuss how conflict management influences group behavior.Discuss how conflict management influences group behavior. Tell the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.Tell the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making. Creating Effective Teams Compare groups and teams.Compare groups and teams. Explain why teams have become so popular in organizations.Explain why teams have become so popular in organizations. Describe the four most common types of teams.Describe the four most common types of teams.

4 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (contd) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Creating Effective Teams (contd) List the characteristics of effective teams.List the characteristics of effective teams. Current Challenges in Managing Teams Discuss the challenges of managing global teamsDiscuss the challenges of managing global teams Explain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teams.Explain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teams.

5 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–5 Understanding Groups GroupGroup Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Formal groups Formal groups Work groups defined by the organizations structure that have designated work assignments and tasks. Work groups defined by the organizations structure that have designated work assignments and tasks. –Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups Informal groups Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members. Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.

6 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–6 Exhibit 15–1Examples of Formal Groups Command GroupsCommand Groups Groups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager. Groups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task GroupsTask Groups Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands. Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands.

7 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–7 Exhibit 15–1Examples of Formal Groups (contd) Cross-Functional TeamsCross-Functional Teams Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others jobs. Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others jobs. Self-Managed TeamsSelf-Managed Teams Groups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations. Groups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations.

8 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–8 Stages in Group Development FormingForming Members join and begin the process of defining the groups purpose, structure, and leadership. Members join and begin the process of defining the groups purpose, structure, and leadership. StormingStorming Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership. Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership. NormingNorming Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior. Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior. PerformingPerforming A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand. A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand. AdjourningAdjourning The group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance. The group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance.

9 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–9 Exhibit 15–2Stages of Group Development

10 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–10 Exhibit 15–3Group Behavior Model

11 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–11 Work Group Behavior Internal Variables Affecting Group BehaviorInternal Variables Affecting Group Behavior The individual abilities of the groups members The individual abilities of the groups members The size of the group The size of the group The level of conflict The level of conflict The internal pressures on members to conform to the groups norms The internal pressures on members to conform to the groups norms

12 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–12 Conditions Affecting Group Behavior External (Organizational) ConditionsExternal (Organizational) Conditions Overall strategy Overall strategy Authority structures Authority structures Formal regulations Formal regulations Available organizational resources Available organizational resources Employee selection criteria Employee selection criteria Performance management (appraisal) system Performance management (appraisal) system Organizational culture Organizational culture General physical layout General physical layout Internal Group VariablesInternal Group Variables Individual competencies and traits of members Individual competencies and traits of members Group structure Group structure Size of the group Size of the group Cohesiveness and the level of intragroup conflict Cohesiveness and the level of intragroup conflict Internal pressures on members to conform o the groups norms Internal pressures on members to conform o the groups norms

13 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–13 Group Structure RoleRole The set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit that assist the group in task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction. The set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit that assist the group in task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction. Role conflict: experiencing differing role expectations Role conflict: experiencing differing role expectations Role ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectations Role ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectations

14 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–14 Group Structure (contd) NormsNorms Acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the groups members. Acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the groups members. Common types of normsCommon types of norms Effort and performance Effort and performance Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing Dress Dress Loyalty Loyalty

15 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–15 Group Structure (contd) ConformityConformity Individuals conform in order to be accepted by groups. Individuals conform in order to be accepted by groups. Group pressures can have an effect on an individual members judgment and attitudes. Group pressures can have an effect on an individual members judgment and attitudes. The effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force. The effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force. Groupthink Groupthink The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group. The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group.

16 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–16 Exhibit 15–4Examples of Cards Used in the Asch Study

17 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–17 Group Structure (contd) Status SystemStatus System The formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator. The formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator. Formal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent. Formal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent.

18 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–18 Group Structure: Group Size Small groupsSmall groups Complete tasks faster than larger groups. Complete tasks faster than larger groups. Make more effective use of facts. Make more effective use of facts. Large groupsLarge groups Solve problems better than small groups. Solve problems better than small groups. Are good for getting diverse input. Are good for getting diverse input. Are more effective in fact- finding. Are more effective in fact- finding. Social LoafingSocial Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when work individually. The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when work individually.

19 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–19 Group Structure (contd) Group CohesivenessGroup Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the groups goals. The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the groups goals. Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals. Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.

20 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–20 Exhibit 15–5The Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity

21 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–21 Group Processes: Group Decision Making AdvantagesAdvantages Generates more complete information and knowledge. Generates more complete information and knowledge. Generates more diverse alternatives. Generates more diverse alternatives. Increases acceptance of a solution. Increases acceptance of a solution. Increases legitimacy of decision. Increases legitimacy of decision. DisadvantagesDisadvantages Time consuming Time consuming Minority domination Minority domination Pressures to conform Pressures to conform Ambiguous responsibility Ambiguous responsibility

22 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–22 Exhibit 15–6Group versus Individual Decision Making Criteria of Effectiveness Groups Individuals Accuracy Speed Creativity Degree of acceptance Efficiency

23 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–23 Exhibit 15–7Techniques for Making More Creative Group Decisions

24 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–24 Group Processes: Conflict Management ConflictConflict The perceived incompatible differences in a group resulting in some form of interference with or opposition to its assigned tasks. The perceived incompatible differences in a group resulting in some form of interference with or opposition to its assigned tasks. Traditional view: conflict must be avoided. Traditional view: conflict must be avoided. Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and is absolutely necessary for effective group performance. Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and is absolutely necessary for effective group performance.

25 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–25 Group Processes: Conflict Management (contd) Categories of ConflictCategories of Conflict Functional conflicts are constructive. Functional conflicts are constructive. Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive. Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive. Types of ConflictTypes of Conflict Task conflict: content and goals of the work Task conflict: content and goals of the work Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationships Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationships Process conflict: how the work gets done Process conflict: how the work gets done

26 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–26 Exhibit 15–8Conflict and Group Performance

27 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–27 Group Processes: Conflict Management (contd) Techniques to Reduce Conflict:Techniques to Reduce Conflict: Avoidance Avoidance Accommodation Accommodation Forcing Forcing Compromise Compromise Collaboration Collaboration

28 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–28 Exhibit 15–9Conflict-Management Techniques Source: Adapted from K.W. Thomas, Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, 2d ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p With permission

29 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–29 Group Tasks and Group Effectiveness Highly complex and interdependent tasks require:Highly complex and interdependent tasks require: Effective communications: discussion among group members. Effective communications: discussion among group members. Controlled conflict: More interaction among group members. Controlled conflict: More interaction among group members.

30 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–30 What Is a Team? Work TeamWork Team A group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills. A group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills. Types of TeamsTypes of Teams Problem-solving teams Problem-solving teams Self-managed work teams Self-managed work teams Cross-functional teams Cross-functional teams Virtual teams Virtual teams

31 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–31 Exhibit 15–10Groups versus Teams

32 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–32 Types of Teams Problem-solving TeamsProblem-solving Teams Employees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Employees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Self-managed Work TeamsSelf-managed Work Teams A formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete work process or segment. A formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete work process or segment.

33 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–33 Types of Teams (contd) Cross-functional TeamsCross-functional Teams A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks. A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks. Virtual TeamsVirtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

34 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–34 Advantages of Using Teams Teams outperform individuals.Teams outperform individuals. Teams provide a way to better use employee talents.Teams provide a way to better use employee talents. Teams are more flexible and responsive.Teams are more flexible and responsive. Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.

35 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–35 Exhibit 15–11Characteristics of Effective Teams

36 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–36 Characteristics of Effective Teams Have a clear understanding of their goals.Have a clear understanding of their goals. Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills.Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills. Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members.Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members. Are unified in their commitment to team goals.Are unified in their commitment to team goals. Have good communication systems.Have good communication systems. Possess effective negotiating skillsPossess effective negotiating skills Have appropriate leadershipHave appropriate leadership Have both internally and externally supportive environmentsHave both internally and externally supportive environments

37 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–37 Current Challenges in Managing Teams Getting employees to:Getting employees to: Cooperate with others Cooperate with others Share information Share information Confront differences Confront differences Sublimate personal interest for the greater good of the team Sublimate personal interest for the greater good of the team

38 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–38 Managing Global Teams Group Member ResourcesGroup Member Resources Unique cultural characteristics of team members Unique cultural characteristics of team members Avoiding stereotyping Avoiding stereotyping Group StructureGroup Structure Conformityless groupthink Conformityless groupthink Statusvaries in importance among cultures Statusvaries in importance among cultures Social loafingpredominately a Western bias Social loafingpredominately a Western bias Cohesivenessmore difficult to achieve Cohesivenessmore difficult to achieve Group processescapitalize on diverse ideasGroup processescapitalize on diverse ideas Managers rolea communicator sensitive to the type of globe team to use.Managers rolea communicator sensitive to the type of globe team to use.

39 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–39 Exhibit 15–12Drawbacks and Benefits of Global Teams

40 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–40 Understanding Social Networks Social NetworkSocial Network The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups The Importance of Social NetworksThe Importance of Social Networks Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team. Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.

41 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–41 Terms to Know groupgroup formingforming stormingstorming normingnorming performingperforming adjourningadjourning rolerole normsnorms groupthinkgroupthink statusstatus social loafingsocial loafing group cohesivenessgroup cohesiveness conflictconflict traditional view of conflicttraditional view of conflict human relations view of conflicthuman relations view of conflict interactionist view of conflictinteractionist view of conflict functional conflictsfunctional conflicts dysfunctional conflictsdysfunctional conflicts task conflicttask conflict relationship conflictrelationship conflict process conflictprocess conflict work teamswork teams

42 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–42 Terms to Know problem-solving teamproblem-solving team self-managed work teamself-managed work team cross-functional teamcross-functional team virtual teamvirtual team social network structuresocial network structure


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