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Decolonization (1945-Present).

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Presentation on theme: "Decolonization (1945-Present)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decolonization (1945-Present)



4 Indian Independence The partition set off mass migrations of Muslims fleeing India and Hindus fleeing Pakistan – millions were killed crossing the borders (even Gandhi was assassinated by an extremist) Jawaharlal Nehru became 1st P.M. of world’s largest democracy in 1947  Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter, P.M. ( assassinated)  Rajiv Gandhi P.M. ( assassinated in 1991) Followed policy of nonalignment during the Cold War Bangladesh split from W. Pakistan in 1971 due to economic & cultural differences

5 Obstacles to Progress in India
GOALS OBSTACLES Lack of oil & natural gas Attempt to follow socialist model Industrial Growth Hindu caste system Less education for women & poor Ethnic & religious prejudices Social Equality High cost of farm equipment Rapid population growth Floods & drought Produce enough food


7 The Philippines – July 4, 1946 US gave $600 million in war damages, but demanded lease of military bases (gave up in 1991) & free trade for 8 years Ferdinand Marcos was President – imposed martial law from to stay in power 1986 lost election (begrudgingly) to Corazon Aquino $475 million stolen by Marcos was recovered from Swiss banks



10 The Gold Coast  Ghana - 1957 British colony
Kwame Nkrumah, American-educated independence leader, used strikes & boycotts Nkrumah became P.M. in 1957 1963, Nkrumah created OAU, Organization of African Unity to promote Pan-Africanism 1966 – military coup (argued that Nkrumah wasn’t focused on Ghana)

11 Kenya British colony Jomo Kenyatta, British educated independence leader, spoke for Kikuyu people (farmers) Secret society, Mau Mau, used violence to frighten white farmers  Kenyatta imprisoned 1963 Kenyatta 1st President  economy was strong until 1978 when he died & weak leadership followed

12 Algeria - 1962 French colony
Algerian National Liberation Front, FLN, started to fight for independence  thousands dead De Gaulle back in power in France in 1958 & decided Algeria couldn’t be held 1962, Ahmed Ben Bella named 1st P.M. 1965  struggles for democracy between military coups & Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in a civil war

13 Arab-Israeli Conflict

14 Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
Secret Agreement between France & Britain Defined the spheres of influence that France & Britain would have over Ottoman land after WWI

15 The Balfour Declaration
Foreign Office November 2nd, Dear Lord Rothschild: I have much pleasure in conveying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet: His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours, Arthur James Balfour

16 Post–WWI Reality

17 Inter-War Period Arabs felt betrayed by the West after promised & denied independence Balfour Declaration led to a commitment by Britain to a national homeland for Jews in Palestine (but the Palestinians were there) and furthered the Zionist movement begun in the late 19th century At first, Arabs welcomed economic boost, but when Jews began to clear the land of Arab tenants & refused to hire Palestinian workers  conflict

18 Post-WWII After the holocaust, Jewish migration to Israel, conflict w/ Palestinians & world-wide sympathy led to Britain referring the Palestinian issue it created to the U.N. 1947 – U.N. called for a partition of Palestine w/ Jerusalem as an international city (Jews got 55% land while only 34% of the population)  Palestine & Islamic countries voted against, but Jews voted for May 14, 1948 – Israel independent w/ David Ben Gurion as P.M.


20 CONFL I C T 1948-1949 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six-Day War 1973
The day after independence, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia & Syria invaded Israel Israel seized ½ Palestinian land Egypt  Gaza Strip Jordan  West Bank Palestinians  no land (refugees) 1956 Suez Crisis Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egyptian President, nationalized the Suez Canal  Britain, France & Israel invaded Egypt & took the Canal Pressure by U.S. & U.S.S.R. forced Israel to withdraw  Egypt in charge of Canal 1967 Six-Day War Nasser moved to close off the Gulf of Aqaba  Israel attacked Egypt, Iran, Jordan & Syria Israel  Sinai Peninsula (incl. Gaza Strip), Golan Heights, West Bank & Old Jerusalem 1973 Anwar Sadat (Nasser’s successor) led surprise Arab attack on Yom Kippur & Golda Meir (Israeli P.M.) launched counterattack Truce was signed, but no peace treaty



23 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six-Day War

24 After the 1973 War

25 PEACE? November 1977 1970s & 1980s 1993 Declaration of Principles
1978 U.S. Pres. Carter invited Sadat & Menachem Begin (Israeli P.M.) to Camp David 1979 Camp David Accords World praised Sadat, but Muslim extremists assassinated him 1981 1982 Israel withdrew from Sinai November 1977 In Jerusalem, Sadat offered peace to Israel in exchange for withdrawal from 1967 War territories & recognize Palestinians’ rights 1970s & 1980s Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) formed under Yasir Arafat Campaign of civil disobedience (intifada) influenced world opinion October 1991, Israeli & Palestinian delegates met for the first time in peace talks Yitzak Rabin (Israeli P.M.) agreed to give Palestinians self-rule in the Gaza Strip & West Bank 1993 Rabin & Arafat signed at the White House in D.C. 1995 Rabin assassinated 1993 Declaration of Principles (peace talks at Oslo, Norway)

26 Israeli Settlements

27 Will Recent Events Lead to Peace?
negotiations for a final settlement (at Camp David) ended in deadlock – each side blaming the other 2nd Intifada - violence resumed after Ariel Sharon (then General) visited the temple mount 2002 – Saudi proposal for peace was adopted by the Arab League & became U.N. Resolution 1397 (1st time Arab countries called for a Palestine alongside Israel) – Israel rejected it Suicide bombings & resultant Israeli occupation continues to hinder peace


29 Israel’s Security Barrier (a. k. a
Israel’s Security Barrier (a.k.a. “Security Fence” or “Apartheid Wall”)




33 Recent Event  Peace? (cont.)
2004 – Syria tried to renew peace treaty talks w/ Israel from 1967, but has met cool reception November 11, Yasser Arafat died  Mahmoud Abbas became Palestinian leader 2005 – Sharm El Sheikh Conference – both sides agreed to end violence & Israel’s Knesset approved Disengagement Plan (withdrawal of 24 settlements) Nevertheless violence continued 2006 – Ariel Sharon suffered massive stroke  Ehud Olmert now Israeli P.M. 2006 – Hamas (organization w/ terrorist ties) won election in Palestinian legislature (Abbas still President)

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