2Social Structure The underlying patterns of relations in a group. We carry a “social map” for situations that we have learned.Components:Culturesocial classsocial statusRolesGroupssocial institutionsAll components work together to maintain social order by limiting, guiding, and organizing human behavior.
3Social StatusSocial Status describes the position that a person occupies in society or social group.Serve as guides for our behaviorSets limits on what we can and cannot doEX: son, daughter, teacher, student, workerRoles: An expected behavior associated with a particular status.Occupy a status but you play a role.Ex: Status male; acting tough role
4Cont.Ascribed Statuses: inherited at birth or receives involuntary later in liferace, sex, social class of parentsAchieved Statuses: voluntary, earned or accomplishedstudent, friend, spouse, dropout (positive or negative)“Status set”: all the statuses or positions an individual occupies.Social worker, mother, sister etc.Master Status: a position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life.sex, race, age)“Status inconsistency”: refers to a contradiction or mismatch between statuses. (gas station attendant with a Ph.D.)
5RolesRole Conflict: what is expected of us in one role is incompatible with what is expected of us in another role; conflict between role.Roles: son, student, friend, workerConflict: all want different things from you on the same day (visit someone, b-day party, study, called to work)Role Strain: the same role presents inherent conflict; conflict within a roleRole: studentStrain: do wellRole exit: refers to the ending of a role, including the adjustments people make when they face not “being” what they formerly were.
6Social InstitutionsA system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.FamilyEconomic InstitutionsPolitical InstitutionsEducationReligionInstitutions of FamilyStatuses: mother, father, child #1, child #2Role expectations: Dad & mom work, teenagers help, babies play, etcValues: All for one, and one for allNorms: Help in needTypes of SocietiesPreindustrial: Hunter Gatherer and Agricultural SocietiesIndustrial: shift of from production of food to manufactured goods.Postindustrial: economic activity centers on the production of information and services.
7Gemeinschaft and Gesellshaft Contrasting Societies Gemeinschaft: Cmmunity“Intimate Community”:Ferdinand TonniesDescribes village life, the type of society in which everyone knows everyone else.Example: AmishBelieved that the new society was crowding out family and friendships. This new type….Gesellshaft: Society“Impersonal Association”:Believed that the ties between families and friends had shrunk in importance.Example: City LifeSocial structure set the context for what we do, feel, and think, and ultimately, then, for the kind of people we become.
8Cultural VariationsWhat cultural variations (differences) exist in our American culture?Subcultures: a goup with its own unique values, norms and behaviors.Teenagers, ethnic groups, motorcycle enthusiasts, AmishCountercultures: A subculture who rejects values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces it with a new set of cultural patterns.Satanists, motorcycle gangs and the mafia.