2 Social Structure The underlying patterns of relations in a group. We carry a “social map” for situations that we have learned.Components:Culturesocial classsocial statusRolesGroupssocial institutionsAll components work together to maintain social order by limiting, guiding, and organizing human behavior.
3 Social StatusSocial Status describes the position that a person occupies in society or social group.Serve as guides for our behaviorSets limits on what we can and cannot doEX: son, daughter, teacher, student, workerRoles: An expected behavior associated with a particular status.Occupy a status but you play a role.Ex: Status male; acting tough role
4 Cont.Ascribed Statuses: inherited at birth or receives involuntary later in liferace, sex, social class of parentsAchieved Statuses: voluntary, earned or accomplishedstudent, friend, spouse, dropout (positive or negative)“Status set”: all the statuses or positions an individual occupies.Social worker, mother, sister etc.Master Status: a position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life.sex, race, age)“Status inconsistency”: refers to a contradiction or mismatch between statuses. (gas station attendant with a Ph.D.)
5 RolesRole Conflict: what is expected of us in one role is incompatible with what is expected of us in another role; conflict between role.Roles: son, student, friend, workerConflict: all want different things from you on the same day (visit someone, b-day party, study, called to work)Role Strain: the same role presents inherent conflict; conflict within a roleRole: studentStrain: do wellRole exit: refers to the ending of a role, including the adjustments people make when they face not “being” what they formerly were.
6 Social InstitutionsA system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.FamilyEconomic InstitutionsPolitical InstitutionsEducationReligionInstitutions of FamilyStatuses: mother, father, child #1, child #2Role expectations: Dad & mom work, teenagers help, babies play, etcValues: All for one, and one for allNorms: Help in needTypes of SocietiesPreindustrial: Hunter Gatherer and Agricultural SocietiesIndustrial: shift of from production of food to manufactured goods.Postindustrial: economic activity centers on the production of information and services.
7 Gemeinschaft and Gesellshaft Contrasting Societies Gemeinschaft: Cmmunity“Intimate Community”:Ferdinand TonniesDescribes village life, the type of society in which everyone knows everyone else.Example: AmishBelieved that the new society was crowding out family and friendships. This new type….Gesellshaft: Society“Impersonal Association”:Believed that the ties between families and friends had shrunk in importance.Example: City LifeSocial structure set the context for what we do, feel, and think, and ultimately, then, for the kind of people we become.
8 Cultural VariationsWhat cultural variations (differences) exist in our American culture?Subcultures: a goup with its own unique values, norms and behaviors.Teenagers, ethnic groups, motorcycle enthusiasts, AmishCountercultures: A subculture who rejects values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces it with a new set of cultural patterns.Satanists, motorcycle gangs and the mafia.