Presentation on theme: "Social Structure. The underlying patterns of relations in a group. We carry a “social map” for situations that we have learned. Components: Culture social."— Presentation transcript:
The underlying patterns of relations in a group. We carry a “social map” for situations that we have learned. Components: Culture social class social status Roles Groups social institutions All components work together to maintain social order by limiting, guiding, and organizing human behavior.
Social Status Social Status describes the position that a person occupies in society or social group. Serve as guides for our behavior Sets limits on what we can and cannot do EX: son, daughter, teacher, student, worker Roles: An expected behavior associated with a particular status. Occupy a status but you play a role. Ex: Status male; acting tough role
Cont. Ascribed Statuses: inherited at birth or receives involuntary later in life race, sex, social class of parents Achieved Statuses: voluntary, earned or accomplished student, friend, spouse, dropout (positive or negative) “Status set”: all the statuses or positions an individual occupies. Social worker, mother, sister etc. Master Status: a position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life. sex, race, age) “Status inconsistency”: refers to a contradiction or mismatch between statuses. (gas station attendant with a Ph.D.)
Roles Role Conflict: what is expected of us in one role is incompatible with what is expected of us in another role; conflict between role. Roles: son, student, friend, worker Conflict: all want different things from you on the same day (visit someone, b-day party, study, called to work) Role Strain: the same role presents inherent conflict; conflict within a role Role: student Strain: do well Role exit: refers to the ending of a role, including the adjustments people make when they face not “being” what they formerly were.
Social Institutions A system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society. Family Economic Institutions Political Institutions Education Religion Institutions of Family Statuses: mother, father, child #1, child #2 Role expectations: Dad & mom work, teenagers help, babies play, etc Values: All for one, and one for all Norms: Help in need Types of Societies Preindustrial: Hunter Gatherer and Agricultural Societies Industrial: shift of from production of food to manufactured goods. Postindustrial: economic activity centers on the production of information and services.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellshaft Contrasting Societies Gemeinschaft: Cmmunity “Intimate Community”: Ferdinand Tonnies Describes village life, the type of society in which everyone knows everyone else. Example: Amish Believed that the new society was crowding out family and friendships. This new type…. Gesellshaft: Society “Impersonal Association”: Believed that the ties between families and friends had shrunk in importance. Example: City Life Social structure set the context for what we do, feel, and think, and ultimately, then, for the kind of people we become.
Cultural Variations What cultural variations (differences) exist in our American culture? Subcultures: a goup with its own unique values, norms and behaviors. Teenagers, ethnic groups, motorcycle enthusiasts, Amish http://www.everydaysociologyblog.com /2012/03/subcultures-among-us-the- amish.html http://www.everydaysociologyblog.com /2012/03/subcultures-among-us-the- amish.html Countercultures: A subculture who rejects values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces it with a new set of cultural patterns. Satanists, motorcycle gangs and the mafia.