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Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Chapter Three 1.

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1 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Chapter Three 1


3 Despite all of our differences (race, religion, socio-economic status, etc.), Americans share certain values. 3

4 I. Traditional American Values Sociologist Robin Williams identified a set of 15 values central to the American way of life. A. Personal Achievement: the U.S. was built on individualism and competition B. Individualism: we work solo and are to blame when we fail 4

5 C. Work: those that don’t are lazy and looked at negatively D. Morality & Humanitarianism: we tend to be “religious” and have definite ideas of what’s right and wrong E. Efficiency & Practicality: we’re inventive and interested in the usefulness of technology 5

6 F. Progress & Material Comfort: we’re comfortable with science and technology and value material items G. Equality & Democracy: including equal opportunity H. Freedom: choice is important 6

7 I. Nationalism & Patriotism: often for holidays or at time of war J. Science & Rationality: we like to have explanations K. Racial & Group Superiority: our group of people are best L. Education: added by James Henslin 7

8 II. Our Changing Values A. Values are dynamic—they’re always changing B. Additional Values—linked to self- fulfillment 1.Leisure 2.Physical Fitness 3.Youthfulness 4.Concern for Environment 8

9 C. Christopher Lasch 1.Author of The Culture of Narcissism 2.Americans are extremely self- centered D. Daniel Yankelovich 1.Americans believe less in hard work today 2.We need to focus on fulfillment outside of material items 9

10 SOCIAL CONTROL Section Two 10

11 Norms are developed to help a society run smoothly. 11

12 I. Internalization of Norms People follow rules because it is good, useful, or appropriate 12

13 II. Sanctions A. Positive Sanctions: rewards for certain behaviors ◦ Example: raises for good work B. Negative Sanctions: punishment for undesired behaviors ◦ Example: spankings for bad children 13

14 C. Formal Sanctions: given by formal organizations (schools, businesses, or governments) ◦ Example: job promotion or imprisonment D. Informal Sanctions: spontaneous approval or disapproval ◦ Example: compliments or frowns 14

15 III. Social Control (enforcing norms) A. Self-control B. Encouraged by: authority figures, courts, police, religion, family, and public opinion Capital Punishment—is this right or wrong? 15

16 Social Structure Chapter Four 16


18 Question: Can a society exist without a social structure—a system of interrelated parts? 18

19 I. Status A. Definition: a socially defined position in a group or in a society B. Types 1.Ascribed: assigned position based on age or inherited traits  Example: teenager, gender, race 2.Achieved: a position acquired due to a person’s own efforts  Example: occupations, athletes, wife 19

20 3. Master: the status that plays the greatest role in defining a person’s life/identity; usually changes throughout a person’s life 20

21 II. Roles A. Definition: the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status B. Role Issues 1.Reciprocal: needs a corresponding role to be fulfilled  Example: husband/wife, doctor/patient 2.Role Expectations: socially determined behaviors  Example: police officers are expected to follow the law 21

22 3.Role Performance: the actual behavior  Do all police officers follow the law? 4.Role Conflict: when a person’s roles conflict  Example: a good employee goes to work every day, but a good parent stays home with a sick child 5.Role Strain: when a person has trouble completing the expected behaviors for his/her status 22

23 III. Social Institutions A. Definition: when the statuses and roles are organized to satisfy the basic needs of society B. Examples: family, the economy, politics, education, religion, the media, medicine, and science 23

24 TYPES OF SOCIETIES Section Three 24

25 I. Preindustrial Societies The main economic activity is food production A. Hunting and Gathering Societies 1.Collect plants and hunt animals daily 2.Nomadic 3.Usually less than 60 people 4.Family is the main social unit 25

26 B. Pastoral Societies 1.Domesticate animals for food needs 2.Nomadic 3.Groups are larger than Hunters & Gatherers 4.Division of labor: food production, craftworks, weapons, etc. 5.Trade with other groups or families 6.Heredity chieftainships 26

27 C. Horticulture Societies 1.Use simple tools to cultivate the land for multiple seasons 2.Have villages with 30 to 2000 people 27

28 D. Agricultural Societies 1.Uses technology to maximize production 2.Develop cities with specialized roles 3.Use money 4.Have armies for defense 28

29 II. Industrial Societies The main economic activity is producing manufactured goods A. Urbanization: population is concentrated in cities B. Use the assembly line/mass production C. Science often challenges religious ideas D. Social mobility is possible 29

30 III. Post Industrial Societies The main economic activity is providing information and services A. Includes the United States B. Emphasizes science and education 30

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