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Limiting Reactants Caution: this stuff is difficult to follow at first. Be patient.

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Presentation on theme: "Limiting Reactants Caution: this stuff is difficult to follow at first. Be patient."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Limiting Reactants Caution: this stuff is difficult to follow at first. Be patient.

3 + 8 car bodies 48 tires8 cars plus 16 tires excess Limiting Reactants CB + 4 T CT 4

4 plus 8 hydrogen molecules excess + 8 carbon atoms 24 hydrogen molecules 8 methane molecules plus 16 hydrogen atoms excess Limiting Reactants C + 2 H 2 CH 4 Methane, CH 4

5 Container 1 Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 269

6 Before and After Reaction 1 All the hydrogen and nitrogen atoms combine. Before the reaction After the reaction Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 269 N 2 + H 2 NH 3 3 2

7 Container 2 Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 270

8 Before and After Reaction 2 Before the reactionAfter the reaction Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 270 N 2 + H 2 NH excess limiting LIMITING REACTANT DETERMINES AMOUNT OF PRODUCT

9 Real-World Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactants LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 366 Ideal Stoichiometry Limiting Reactants Fe + S FeS S = Fe = excess

10 Grilled Cheese Sandwich Bread + Cheese  ‘Cheese Melt’ 2 B + C  B 2 C 100 bread 30 slices? sandwiches Multiple Guess: 130 sandwiches 100 sandwiches 90 sandwiches 60 sandwiches 30 sandwiches Not enough information given 30 sandwiches

11 Limiting Reactants Available IngredientsAvailable Ingredients –4 slices of bread –1 jar of peanut butter –1/2 jar of jelly Limiting ReactantLimiting Reactant –bread Excess ReactantsExcess Reactants –peanut butter and jelly Courtesy Christy Johannesson

12 Limiting Reactants Limiting ReactantLimiting Reactant –used up in a reaction –determines the amount of product Excess ReactantExcess Reactant –added to ensure that the other reactant is completely used up –cheaper & easier to recycle Courtesy Christy Johannesson

13 The Limiting Reactant With……and… …one can make… A balanced equation for making a Big Mac® might be: 3 B + 2 M + EE B 3 M 2 EE 15 B 3 M 2 EE 10 B 3 M 2 EE 30 M 30 B 30 M excess B and excess EE 30 B and excess EE excess M and excess EE

14 The Limiting Reactant With……and… …one can make… A balanced equation for making a tricycle might be: 3 W + 2 P + S + H + F W 3 P 2 SHF 25 W 3 P 2 SHF 50 W 3 P 2 SHF 25 W 3 P 2 SHF 50 P 50 S 50 P excess of all other reactants 50 S and excess of all other reactants excess of all other reactants

15 Limiting Reactants aluminum + chlorine gas  aluminum chloride Al(s) + Cl 2 (g)  AlCl 3 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl 2 (g)  2 AlCl g 100 g ? g A. 200 gB. 125 gC. 667 gD. 494 g

16 Limiting Reactants aluminum + chlorine gas  aluminum chloride 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl 2 (g)  2 AlCl g 100 g x g AlAlCl 3 x g AlCl 3 = 100 g Al 27 g Al = 494 g AlCl 3 1 mol Al 2 mol AlCl 3 2 mol Al g AlCl 3 1 mol AlCl 3 How much product would be made if we begin with 100 g of aluminum? Cl 2 AlCl 3 x g AlCl 3 = 100 g Cl 2 71 g Cl 2 = 125 g AlCl 3 1 mol Cl 2 2 mol AlCl 3 3 mol Cl g AlCl 3 1 mol AlCl 3 How much product would be made if we begin with 100 g of chlorine gas?

17 Limiting Reactants – Method 1 1. Write a balanced equation. 2. For each reactant, calculate the amount of product formed. 3. Smaller answer indicates: –limiting reactant –amount of product Courtesy Christy Johannesson

18 Limiting Reactants – Method 2 Begin by writing a correctly balanced chemical equation Write down all quantitative values under equation (include units) Convert ALL reactants to units of moles Divide by the coefficient in front of each reactant The smallest value is the limiting reactant!

19 Stoichiometry Problems 2 Keys Stoichiometry Problems 2


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