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Mole Review 1.) Calculate the number of moles in 60.4L of O2. 2.) How many moles are there in 63.2g of Cl2? 1 mol O2 60.4L O2 = 2.7 mol O2 22.4L O2 1mol Cl2 63.2g Cl2 = 0.903mol Cl2 70g Cl2

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**Math In Chemistry Stoichiometry**

Unit 08 Math In Chemistry Stoichiometry

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**Scheduled to make 640 tricycles. How many wheels should they order?**

Proportional Relationships Tiny Tyke Tricycle Company F + S + 3W + H + 2P → FSW3HP2 Scheduled to make 640 tricycles. How many wheels should they order?

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**Proportional Relationships**

2 1/4 c. flour 1 tsp. baking soda 1 tsp. salt 1 c. butter 3/4 c. sugar 3/4 c. brown sugar 1 tsp vanilla extract 2 eggs 2 c. chocolate chips Makes 5 dozen cookies. I have 5 eggs. How many cookies can I make? Ratio of eggs to cookies 5 eggs 5 doz. 2 eggs = 12.5 dozen cookies

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**Proportional Relationships**

Stoichiometry mass relationships between substances in a chemical reaction for example: you can determine the amount of a compound required to make another compound based on the mole ratio Mole Ratio indicated by coefficients in a balanced equation 2 Mg + O2 2 MgO 2 Moles of magnesium react with 1 mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of magnesium oxide.

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2 Mg + O2 2 MgO What would be the mole ratio of magnesium to magnesium oxide? 2 : 2 Conversion factor = 2 mol Mg 2 mol MgO What would be the mole ratio of oxygen to magnesium? 1 : 2 Conversion factor = 1 mol O2 (Mole Ratio) 2 mol Mg

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Practice 5 F2 + 2NH3 N2F4 + 6HF 1. What is the mole ratio of NH3 to F2? Write the mole ratio as a conversion factor. 2. What is the mole ratio of HF to N2F4? 2:5 2mol NH3 5mol F2 6:1 6mol HF 1mol N2F4

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**Stoichiometry Steps 1. Identify known & unknown.**

2. Convert known to mole. (if necessary) 3. Use Mole Ratio. 4. Convert moles to unknown unit. (if necessary) Mole ratio- get from equation Units of unknown known Mol of unknown Mol of known Mol of unknown

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**Mass-Mass Stoichiometry**

Mass of reactants equals the products Law of Conservation of Mass ONLY mass and atoms are conserved in every chemical reaction Known g 1 mol Known Molar mass Known mol unknown mol known Mol ratio- get from equation Molar mass unknown 1 mol unknown

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**Mass-Mass Stoichiometry**

#1 The reaction of fluorine with ammonia produces dinitrogen tetrafluoride and hydrogen fluoride. 5F2 + 2 NH3 → N2F4 + 6HF How many grams of NH3 are required to produce 7.38g HF?

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**Mass-Mass Stoichiometry**

#2 5F2 + 2 NH3 → N2F4 + 6HF How many grams of N2F4 can be produced from 265g F2?

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**Mass-Mass Stoichiometry**

#3 2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O How many grams of oxygen are required to burn 52.0g C2H2?

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**C. Stoichiometry Problems**

How many grams of silver will be formed from 12.0 g copper? Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 12.0 g ? g 12.0 g Cu 1 mol Cu 63.55 g Cu 2 mol Ag 1 mol Cu 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag = 40.7 g Ag

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**C. Stoichiometry Problems**

Calculate the number of grams of NH3 produced by the reaction of 5.40 g of hydrogen with an excess of nitrogen. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

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**C. Stoichiometry Problems**

Acetylen gas (C2H2) is produced by adding water to calcium carbide (CaC2). CaC2 + 2H2O C2H2 + Ca(OH)2 How many grams of acetylene are produced by adding water to 5.00 g CaC2? Using the same equation, determine how many moles of CaC2 are needed to react completely with 49.0 g H2O.

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**Mole-Mole Examples __S + __O2 → __SO3 Write the equation.**

#1 __S + __O2 → __SO3 Write the equation. Balance the equation. How many moles of SO3 are produced when there are 4.5 moles of S? Known = Unknown =

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**Mole-Mole Examples 2C3H7OH + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2O Write the equation.**

#2 Isopropyl alcohol (C3H7OH) burns in the air to this equation: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2O Write the equation. Calculate the moles of oxygen needed to react with 3.40 moles of isopropyl alcohol.

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**Mole-Mole Examples 2C3H7OH + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2O**

#3 2C3H7OH + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2O Find the moles of water when 6.20 mol O2 reacts with C3H7OH.

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**C. Stoichiometry Problems**

How many moles of KClO3 must decompose in order to produce 9 moles of oxygen gas? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 ? mol 9 mol 9 mol O2 2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2 = 6 mol KClO3

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**Volume-Volume Stoichiometry**

Formula to use: Known (L) 1 mol known mol unknown L unknown L known mol known mol unknown

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**Volume Example C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O**

#4 C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O If 20 liters of oxygen are consumed in the above reaction, how many liters of carbon dioxide are produced?

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**C. Mixed Stoichiometry Problems**

How many moles of KClO3 must decompose in order to produce 9 moles of oxygen gas? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 ? mol 9 mol 9 mol O2 2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2 = 6 mol KClO3

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**C. Mixed Stoichiometry Problems**

How many grams of KClO3 are required to produce 9.00 L of O2 at STP? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 ? g 9.00 L 9.00 L O2 1 mol O2 22.4 L 2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2 122.55 g KClO3 1 mol KClO3 = 32.8 g KClO3

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**Limiting Reactants/Reagents**

Available Ingredients 4 slices of bread 1 jar of peanut butter 1/2 jar of jelly Limiting Reactant/Reagents bread Excess Reactants/Reagents peanut butter and jelly

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**Limiting Reactants/Reagents**

Limiting Reactant/Reagent used up in a reaction determines the amount of product Excess Reactant/Reagent added to ensure that the other reactant is completely used up cheaper & easier to recycle

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**Limiting Reagents 1. Write a balanced equation.**

2. For each reactant, calculate the amount of product formed. 3. Smaller answer indicates: limiting reactant amount of product

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**Limiting Reagents Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2**

79.1 g of zinc react with 0.90 L of HCl. Identify the limiting and excess reactants. How many liters of hydrogen are formed at STP? Zn HCl ZnCl H2 79.1 g 0.90 L ? L

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**Limiting Reagents Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 79.1 g 0.90 L ? L 79.1 g Zn**

1 mol Zn 65 g Zn 1 mol H2 Zn 22.4 L H2 1 mol = 27.3 L H2

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**Limiting Reagents Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 79.1 g 0.90 L ? L 0.90 L HCl**

1 mol HCl 22.4 L HCl 1 mol H2 2 mol HCL 22.4 L H2 1 mol = 0.45 L H2

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**Limiting Reagents Zn: 27.3 L H2 HCl: 0.45 L H2 Limiting reagent: HCl**

Excess reagent: Zn

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Percent Yield Percent yield- the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield Actual yield- the amount of product formed when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory Theoretical yield- the calculated amount of product formed during a reaction

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Percent Yield measured in lab calculated on paper 32

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**Percent Yield K2CO3 + 2HCl 2KCl + H2O + CO2**

When 45.8 g of K2CO3 react with excess HCl, 46.3 g of KCl are formed. Calculate the theoretical and % yields of KCl. K2CO3 + 2HCl 2KCl + H2O + CO2 45.8 g ? g actual: 46.3 g

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**Formulas to Use Mole - Mole Known mol of unknown mol of known**

Mol Ratio – from equation Mass - Mass mol of unknown Known g 1 mol known molar mass unknown mol of known 1 mol unknown molar mass known OR OR Other 6.02 × 1023 particles mol of unknown Known L 1 mol known 22.4 L unknown OR particles mol of known 1 mol unknown 22.4 L known 6.02 × 1023 particles

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**Stoichiometry Problems**

How many moles of KClO3 must decompose in order to produce 9 moles of oxygen gas? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 ? mol 9 mol 9 mol O2 2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2 = 6 mol KClO3

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**Stoichiometry Problems**

How many grams of KClO3 are req’d to produce 9.00 L of O2 at STP? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 ? g 9.00 L 9.00 L O2 1 mol O2 22.4 L 2 mol KClO3 3 mol O2 122.55 g KClO3 1 mol KClO3 = 32.8 g KClO3

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**Stoichiometry Problems**

How many grams of silver will be formed from 12.0 g copper? Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 12.0 g ? g 12.0 g Cu 1 mol Cu 63.55 g Cu 2 mol Ag 1 mol Cu 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag = 40.7 g Ag

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**Stoichiometry Problems**

How many grams of Cu are required to react with 1.5 L of 0.10M AgNO3? Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 ? g 1.5L 0.10M 1.5 L .10 mol AgNO3 1 L 1 mol Cu 2 mol AgNO3 63.55 g Cu 1 mol Cu = 4.8 g Cu

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