2 Grilled Cheese Sandwich Bread Cheese ‘Cheese Melt’2 B C B2C100 bread slices ? sandwiches
3 Container 1Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 269
4 Before and After Reaction 1 Before the reactionAfter the reactionAll the hydrogen and nitrogen atoms combine.Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 269
5 Container 2Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 270
6 Before and After Reaction 2 Before the reactionAfter the reactionZumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 270
7 Real-World Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactants IdealStoichiometryLimitingReactantsLeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 366
8 Limiting Reactants aluminum + chlorine gas aluminum chloride Al(s) Cl2(g) AlCl32 Al(s) Cl2(g) AlCl3100 g g ? gA g B g C g D. ???
9 Limiting Reactant: Cookies 1 cup butter1/2 cup white sugar1 cup packed brown sugar1 teaspoon vanilla extract2 eggs2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour1 teaspoon baking soda1 teaspoon salt2 cups semisweet chocolate chipsMakes 3 dozenIf we had the specified amount of ingredients listed, could we make 4 dozen cookies?What if we had 6 eggs and twice as much of everything else, could we make 9 dozen cookies?What if we only had one egg, could we make 3 dozen cookies?
10 Limiting ReactantMost of the time in chemistry we have more of one reactant than we need to completely use up other reactant.That reactant is said to be in excess (there is too much).The other reactant limits how much product we get. Once it runs out, the reaction s. This is called the limiting reactant.
11 Limiting ReactantTo find the correct answer, we have to try all of the reactants. We have to calculate how much of a product we can get from each of the reactants to determine which reactant is the limiting one.The lower amount of a product is the correct answer.The reactant that makes the least amount of product is the limiting reactant. Once you determine the limiting reactant, you should ALWAYS start with it!Be sure to pick a product! You can’t compare to see which is greater and which is lower unless the product is the same!
12 Limiting Reactant: Example 10.0g of aluminum reacts with 35.0 grams of chlorine gas to produce aluminum chloride. Which reactant is limiting, which is in excess, and how much product is produced?2 Al + 3 Cl2 2 AlCl3Start with Al:Now Cl2:10.0 g Al 1 mol Al mol AlCl g AlCl327.0 g Al mol Al mol AlCl3= 49.4g AlCl335.0g Cl mol Cl mol AlCl g AlCl371.0 g Cl mol Cl mol AlCl3= 43.9g AlCl3
13 LR Example ContinuedWe get 49.4g of aluminum chloride from the given amount of aluminum, but only 43.9g of aluminum chloride from the given amount of chlorine. Therefore, chlorine is the limiting reactant. Once the 35.0g of chlorine is used up, the reaction comes to a complete
14 Limiting Reactant Practice 15.0 g of potassium reacts with 15.0 g of iodine. Calculate which reactant is limiting and how much product is made.
15 Finding the Amount of Excess By calculating the amount of the excess reactant needed to completely react with the limiting reactant, we can subtract that amount from the given amount to find the amount of excess.Can we find the amount of excess potassium in the previous problem?
16 Finding Excess Practice 15.0 g of potassium reacts with 15.0 g of iodine. 2 K + I2 2 KIWe found that Iodine is the limiting reactant, and 19.6 g of potassium iodide are produced.15.0 g I mol I mol K g K254 g I mol I mol K= 4.62 g K USED!15.0 g K – 4.62 g K = g K EXCESSGiven amount of excess reactantAmount of excess reactant actually usedNote that we started with the limiting reactant! Once you determine the LR, you should only start with it!
17 Limiting Reactant: Recap You can recognize a limiting reactant problem because there is MORE THAN ONE GIVEN AMOUNT.Convert ALL of the reactants to the SAME product (pick any product you choose.)The lowest answer is the correct answer.The reactant that gave you the lowest answer is the LIMITING REACTANT.The other reactant(s) are in EXCESS.To find the amount of excess, subtract the amount used from the given amount.If you have to find more than one product, be sure to start with the limiting reactant. You don’t have to determine which is the LR over and over again!
19 Percent YieldsTheoretical yield: max amount of a product that is formed in a reaction.Actual yield: amount of product that is actually obtained in a reactionUsually less than theoretical. Why?
20 Why?Theoretical has assumed that all of limiting reagent has completely reacted.Many reactions do not go to completionUnexpected competing side reactions limit the formation of products.Some reactants are lost during the separation process (remember in the lab, pouring off water, leaving silver behind!)Impure reactantsFaulty measuringPoor experimental design or technique
21 How to calculate? Percent Yield = Actual Yield x 100% Theoretical yield
22 Practice together: HBrO3 + 5HBr 3H2O + 3 Br2 20g of HBrO3 is reacted with excess HBr.What is the theoretical yield of Br2?What is the percent yield, if 47.3g is produced?HBrO3 + 5HBr 3H2O + 3 Br2
23 Ba(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaNO3 Practice alone:When 35g of Ba(NO3)2 is reacted with excess Na2SO4, 29.8g of BaSO4 is recovered.Ba(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaNO3Calculate the theoretical yield of BaSO4Calculate the percent yield of BaSO4