Limiting/Excess Reactants and Percent Yield

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Limiting/Excess Reactants and Percent Yield
Stoichiometry – Ch 9 Limiting/Excess Reactants and Percent Yield

Limiting Reactants Available Ingredients Limiting Reactant: bread
4 slices of bread 1 jar of peanut butter ½ jar of jelly Limiting Reactant: bread Excess Reactants: peanut butter and jelly

Limiting Reactants Limiting Reactant Excess Reactant
Used up in a reaction Determines the amount of product Excess Reactant Added to ensure that the other reactant is completely used up Cheaper and easier to recycle

Limiting Reactants Write a balanced equation.
For each reactant, calculate the amount of product formed. Smaller answer indicates: Limiting Reactant Amount of product

Limiting Reactants 79.1 g of zinc react with 2.25 moles of HCl. Indentify the limiting and excess reactants. How many liters of hydrogen are formed at STP? Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H g 2.25 mole ? L

Limiting Reactants Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H g 2.25 mole ? L 79.1 g Zn x 1mol Zn x 1 mol H2x 22.4 L H g Zn 1 mol Zn 1 mol H2 = 27.3 L H2

Limiting Reactants Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H g 2.25 mole ? L 2.25 mol HCl x 1 mol H2 x 22.4 L H2 1 2 mol HCl 1 mol H2 = L H2

Limiting Reactants Limiting Reactant: HCl Excess Reactant: Zn
Starting with Zn – 27.3 L H2 Starting with HCl – 25.2 L H2 Limiting Reactant: HCl Excess Reactant: Zn Product Formed: 25.2 L H2

Percent Yield % yield = actual yield (measure in lab) x 100 theoretical yield (calculate)

Percent Yield When 45.8 g of K2CO3 react with excess HCl, 46.3 g of KCl are formed. Calculate the theoretical and percent yields of KCl. K2CO3 + 2HCl  2KCl + H2O + CO g ? g 46.3 g (actual yield)

Percent Yield K2CO3 + 2HCl  2KCl + H2O + CO2
45.8 g ? g (theoretical yield) 46.3 g (actual yield) Theoretical yield: 45.8 g K2CO3 x 1mol K2CO3 x 2 mol KCl x 74.5 g KCl g K2CO mol K2CO mol KCl = g KCl

Percent Yield K2CO3 + 2HCl  2KCl + H2O + CO g 49.5 g (theoretical yield) 46.3 g (actual yield) % yield = 46.3 x 100 = 93.5% 49.5