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CHAPTER 11 Stoichiometry 11.3 Limiting Reactants.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 Stoichiometry 11.3 Limiting Reactants."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 11 Stoichiometry 11.3 Limiting Reactants

2 2 4 slices of bread 4 slices of ham 2 slices of cheese 2 ham & cheese sandwich Suppose you want to make 2 ham & cheese sandwiches Recipe:

3 Limiting Reactants 4 slices of bread 4 slices of ham 2 slices of cheese Suppose you want to make 2 ham & cheese sandwiches Can you still make 2 ham & cheese sandwiches if you have 4 slices of bread, 4 slices of ham, and 1 slice of cheese? 2 ham & cheese sandwich Recipe:

4 Limiting Reactants Suppose you want to make 2 ham & cheese sandwiches Can you still make 2 ham & cheese sandwiches if you have 4 slices of bread, 4 slices of ham, and 1 slice of cheese? No, you are limited by the cheese! You can only get 1 ham & cheese sandwich. Limiting factor

5 Limiting Reactants Excess reactant For a chemical reaction: Reactant A is in excess so the reaction will stop when you run out of reactant B. Reactant B is the limiting reactant. The amount of product C will depend on how much reactant B is present.

6 Limiting Reactants limiting reactant: the reactant that “runs out” first in a chemical reaction. excess reactant: the reactant that is remaining after the reaction is complete. Limiting reactant Excess reactant

7 Limiting Reactants Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

8 Limiting Reactants Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water. 3 questions:1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much excess reactant is left over? 3. How much product is formed?

9 Limiting Reactants 4 CH 4 6 H 2 O Mole ratio: Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

10 Limiting Reactants 4 CH 4 6 H 2 O Mole ratio: Limiting reactant Excess reactant Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

11 Limiting Reactants 3 questions:1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much excess reactant is left over? 3. How much product is formed? Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

12 Limiting Reactants 4 CH 4 6 H 2 O Mole ratio: Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

13 Limiting Reactants 4 CH 4 6 H 2 O Mole ratio: 4 H 2 O moles react with 4 CH 4 moles, so 2 H 2 O moles remain Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

14 Limiting Reactants 3 questions:1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much excess reactant is left over? 3. How much product is formed? Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

15 Limiting Reactants 4 CH 4 Balanced equation: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 3H 2 (g) + CO(g) Consider mixing 4 moles of methane and 6 moles of water.

16 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant?

17 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles

18 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles Step 2: Use mole ratios to find the limiting reactant

19 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles available Fe 2 O 3 available Al Step 2: Use mole ratios to find the limiting reactant

20 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles Step 2: Use mole ratios to find the limiting reactant available Fe 2 O 3 available Al

21 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles Step 2: Use mole ratios to find the limiting reactant needed to react with all Fe 2 O 3 needed to react with all Al available Fe 2 O 3 available Al

22 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? Step 1: Convert masses to moles Step 2: Use mole ratios to find the limiting reactant needed to react with all Fe 2 O 3 needed to react with all Al available Fe 2 O 3 available Al

23 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g60 g 1. What is the limiting reactant? needed to react with all Al available Fe 2 O 3 There is not enough Fe 2 O 3 available to react with all the Al, so Fe 2 O 3 is the limiting reactant

24 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant

25 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant Step 1: Use the limiting reactant and the mole fraction to find moles of Fe

26 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant Step 1: Use the limiting reactant and the mole fraction to find moles of Fe Step 2: Convert moles of Fe to mass of Fe

27 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant Step 1: Use the limiting reactant and the mole fraction to find moles of Fe Step 2: Convert moles of Fe to mass of Fe

28 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant Step 1: Use the limiting reactant and the mole fraction to find moles of Fe Step 2: Convert moles of Fe to mass of Fe

29 Limiting Reactants Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) 150 g 0.94 moles 60 g 2.22 moles 1. What is the limiting reactant? 2. How much product (Fe) is formed? Limiting reactant Step 1: Use the limiting reactant and the mole fraction to find moles of Fe Step 2: Convert moles of Fe to mass of Fe

30 Limiting Reactants

31 Limiting Reactants N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) → 2NH 3 (s) The Haber-Bosch process for the synthesis of ammonia:

32 Limiting Reactants N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) → 2NH 3 (s) The Haber-Bosch process for the synthesis of ammonia:

33 Limiting Reactants N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) → 2NH 3 (s) The Haber-Bosch process for the synthesis of ammonia:

34 Limiting Reactants Limiting reactant Excess reactant To calculate the amount of product from the amount of reactant:


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