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Classifying Animals- Ch. 19 Objectives: Learn how biologists classify animals with their features, obtaining and digesting food, and respiratory and circulation.

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Presentation on theme: "Classifying Animals- Ch. 19 Objectives: Learn how biologists classify animals with their features, obtaining and digesting food, and respiratory and circulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classifying Animals- Ch. 19 Objectives: Learn how biologists classify animals with their features, obtaining and digesting food, and respiratory and circulation in the animal.

2 Do Now: Are all animals classified the same? What are some different classifications of animals?

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4 Classifying Animals More than 1 million different kinds of animals have been identified in the world. Divide into groups based on similarities. – Birds: Falcons, Sparrows, Geese

5 The Seven Levels of Classifiction Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (King Philip came over for great soup) – Species: represents a single type of organism. A group of organisms that can breed with one other to produce offspring like themselves.

6 A Place for Every Organism Every organism that has been identified has its own place in the classification system. – Organisms that are very similar belong to the same genus. Some classification groups have a large number of species, where others have just a few. – Order Coleoptera has over 360,000, while Proboscidea only has 2 (African elephant and Asian elephant)

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8 Scientific Names Most people call animals by common names – Mountain lion: aka puma, cougar, catmount, and American Panther. – June Bug: at least a dozen different beetles that have the same name, so no way of knowing which species it is. – The same animal may have different names in different animals as well: Owl- gufo (Italian), hibou (French), and buho Spanish)

9 Scientific Names Biologists give each species a specific name. – Consists of 2 words The organisms genus, and the species label. Mountain Lion: Felis concolor (Felis concolor) – always italic or underlined and the first word is capital but second is not. What is the scientific name for the African elephant? The scientific name of each species is unique- the scientific name is the same around the world.

10 Do Now: What is the scientific name for the African Elephant?

11 King Philip came over for great soup!!!

12 Objective Recap: What are the 7 classification groups called? – in order How are scientific names written, and what classification groups are used to identify the species?

13 Vertebrates- Lesson 2 Objective: Learn the 5 classifications of vertebrates.

14 Vertebrates Animal with a backbone Nearly 50,000 species of vertebrates in the world

15 Features of Vertebrates 3 features that make them different. – Internal skeleton- made of bone or cartilage (some other animals have internal skeleton but it is made of different material) – Backbone- made of tiny smaller bones or blocks of cartilage called a vertebra – Skull- surrounds and protects the brain Divided into 7 classes- – 3 fish – Other 4 amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals.

16 Fish Over 24,000 species of fish- more species of fish than any other kind of vertebrate All live in water and breathe with gills Most have skeletons made of bone- called bony fish (bass, trout, salmon, etc.) Body is covered with scales that overlap- protection and smooth Swim bladder- filled with gas- by changing amount of gas can move up and down

17 Fish Sharks, rays, and skates are 2 nd type Skeleton made of cartilage not bone Powerful jaws and rows of teeth Tiny scales make skin feel like sandpaper

18 Fish Lampreys and hagfish are 3 rd type Jawless fish and no scales Skeleton made of cartilage

19 Amphibians Amphibians have smooth, scaleless skin which is permeable to water. Water can evaporate easily from the skin, and an amphibian can dry up and die in a few hours if it does not have access to water. Thus amphibians tend to be active at times when evaporation is minimized: at night and when it rains.

20 Amphibians About 5,000 species of frogs, toads, and salamanders. Amphibian- Greek word meaning “double life” Part of life in water and rest on land What is an example of an amphibian? Frogs go through metamorphosis- a major change in form that occurs as some animals develop into adults

21 Amphibians Adults breathe with lungs or through skin Skin is thin and needs to stay moist Eggs don’t have shells so must be laid in water or where the ground is wet.

22 Reptiles Reptiles were the world's first truly terrestrial vertebrates. All reptiles have scaly skin that can withstand dessication and lay eggs with hard shells, therefore they are not tied to the water like their relatives, the amphibians. Since they can live on land, they also have an expanded lung system. What are some examples of reptiles? Reptiles include turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes and tuatara (found only in New Zealand).

23 Reptiles Snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators, and crocodiles About 7,000 species Either live in the water (sea turtle) or on land (tortoise) Skin is scaly and watertight- can live in dry places without drying out.

24 Reptiles Most lay eggs on land Have a soft shell to not let baby from drying out All breathe with lungs so must come for air if live in water. Dinosaurs were reptiles

25 Cold/Warm Blooded Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold- blooded – Body temperature changes with the temperature of their surroundings Birds and mammals are warm-blooded – Body temperature stays the same with change of temperature of surroundings

26 Birds More than 9,000 species Almost all can fly Have feathers- allow lift and smooth lines of body Have hollow bones that keep skeleton light

27 Birds Flying requires a lot of energy so need to eat frequently Feathers keep bird warm All birds breathe with lungs and beaks that are like a horn Birds lay eggs with hard shells

28 Mammals Named for mammary gland- milk producing structures on the chest or abdomen More than 4,000 species have young that develop inside mother (bears, dogs, humans) and 300 have babies that develop in a pouch on the mother (opossum, kangaroo). The duck- billed platypus and spiny anteater are the only mammals that lay eggs.

29 Mammals Have hair that covers most of the body Hair helps keep in body heat Most live on land, but some live in water (whales and porpoises) All breathe with lungs

30 Objective Recap:

31 Invertebrates- Lesson 3 Objective: describe the features of sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms, mollusks, echinoderms, and artropods.

32 By the end of the lesson you will be able to answer: How do sponges feed? Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry. Give an example of a flat worm, round worm and segmented worm. Explain why arthropods molt. How do echinoderms move?

33 Invertebrates Does not have a backbone Makes up 97% of all animal species Belong to more than 30 phyla

34 Sponges Simplest animals bodies have 2 layers of cells without any tissues or organs All 10,000 species live in water Strain food particles out of water as water goes through it A sponge used in the bath is the skeleton of a dead sponge

35 Cnidarians Jellyfish, corals, and hydra About 10,000 species all live in water Body parts are arranges like spokes on wheels- radial symmetry

36 Flatworms Flat and thin Left half and right half are the same- bilateral symmetry More than 20,000 species- most are parasites that live in other animals

37 Flatworms Ex: tapeworm-parasite that lives in the intestine of vertebrates and absorbs nutrients through their skin – People can get if eat infected meat that has not been cooked enough

38 Roundworms Long round bodies that come to a point at the ends Binary symmetry Most of the 80,000 species are not parasitic Live in soil or water – Some that live in soil eat insect pests so good for plants About 150 are parasitic- many live in humans- hookworm go through the skin when people walk barefoot in places that are not clean

39 This is an example of a parasitic roundworm, Ascaris, in a young child. Trichinella is responsible for the most serious roundworm-caused disease, which is known as trichinosis. They live in pigs’ intestines and produce young that make their way to muscle tissue and form tough cysts. Source:

40 Segmented Worms Body divided into many sections Live in soil, freshwater, or the ocean 15,000 species

41 Segmented Worms Earthworms – tunnel through soil and allow air to enter it which helps plants grow Leeches – - eat small invertebrates, some are parasites Parasites attach to skin of vertebrates and feed on blood.- While feeding, leeches release a chemical that keeps blood flowing

42 Enter the leech. Not only does it suck out excess blood, but its saliva contains a powerful blood thinner. So even after it fills up and drops off, bleeding continues. Douglas Chepeha, an ear, nose and throat surgeon at the University of Michigan, treats two or three patients a year with leeches after rebuilding faces or mouths decimated by cancer. Typically, leeches are used one at a time and replaced as they drop off — usually every 20 minutes — for 24 to 48 hours, then intermittently for a few days afterward, Chepeha says.

43 Mollusks More than 112,000 species Divide into 3 parts- head, body, foot Live on land, fresh water, or oceans

44 Mollusks Snails and slugs make up largest group Others include clams, scallops, and oysters » Shell is made of 2 hinged pieces that open and close Squid and octopus do not have outer shell, but can swim quickly as hunt for fish and other animals.

45 Arthropods Largest group of invertebrates. Make up more that ¾ all animals species Major groups include: crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and insects

46 Arthropods Segmented animals with joined legs Most have antennae which use to feel, taste, or smell All have external skeleton that supports the body and protects the tissues inside Can bend at joints External skeleton is not able to grow so must shed its skeleton to grow

47 Arthropods Shedding skeleton is called molting Begins to produce a new skeleton before it molts. After molting, it takes a few days to harden completely – Soft shelled crabs at restaurants are crabs that have just molted

48 Arthropods Crustaceans: Lobsters, Crabs, Crayfish (live in water- 5 pairs of legs- claws to handle food) Sow bugs and pill bugs live on land (under rocks and other moist areas)

49 Arthropods Arachnids: Spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks – 70,000 species – most live on land – have 4 pairs of legs

50 Arthropods Centipedes (2,5000 species) and Millipedes (10,000 species) – live on land – bodies have up to 175 segments with 1 pair of legs on each

51 Arthropods Insects: mosquitoes, flies, ants and beetles- – nearly 1 million species – live almost everywhere, except for the deep ocean – 3 pairs of leg – most have 1 or 2 pairs of wings – the only invertebrates that can fly – most go through metamorphosis

52 Echinoderms Star fish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers – 7,000 species – Live in the ocean – Have radical symmetry – Have tube feet that attach firmly to surfaces and use them to move

53 Invertebrates Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented Worm Mollusks Arthropods Echinoderms

54 Objective Recap: How do sponges feed? Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry. Give an example of a flat worm, round worm and segmented worm. Explain why arthropods molt. How do echinoderms move?

55 How Animals Get and Digest Food Objective: describe 3 main ways to get food, explain digestion, and explain the difference between gastrovascular cavity and a digestive tract

56 By the end of the lesson you will be able to answer: Name 3 kinds of animals that use filter feeding to get food. How are cicadas different in the way they feed? Why must animals digest their food? Name and describe the type of digestive space found in cnidarians. What functions does the digestive tract perform?

57 Filter Feeding Many animals that live in water get food by filtering it, or straining it. Since they stay in one place, Sponges get food by straining bacteria and protists from water as they pass through their bodies.

58 Filter Feeding Barnacles use their legs like screens to collect food particles. Mollusks (clams and oysters) tend to remain in one spot and use gills to strain food out of water. Some filter feeders do move, like whales- harvest millions of tiny animals by swimming with their mouth open.

59 Feeding on Fluids Some animals get their food from fluids of plants or other animals. Aphids and cicadas are insects that have piercing mouthparts- draw sap from roots, leaves, and stems.

60 Feeding on Fluids Bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds draw nectar from flowers. Spiders and assassin bugs capture insects and suck the fluid from their bodies. Leeches, mosquitoes, and horseflies feed on the blood of vertebrates, including humans

61 Consuming Large Pieces of Food Some animals consume (eat) large pieces of solid food. Sometimes they eat the entire organism. Use different kinds of body structures to capture and consume their food.

62 Consuming Large Pieces of Food Hydras, jellyfish, and other cnidarians have tentacles that have stinging cells on the ends they sting their food then bring it to their mouth Many insects have mountparts that can cut and chew – grasshoppers, termites, and beetles eat plants (herbivores) – Dragonflies and praying mantises eat other insects (carnivores)

63 Consuming Large Pieces of Food Vertebrates are the only animals that have teeth – of different shapes and size – each tooth has a specific job

64 Consuming Large Pieces of Food Kind of teeth indicate what kind of food it eats – carnivores have sharp pointed teeth that tear flesh – herbivores have large flat teeth for grinding plants – Chisel- like teeth in the front cut the food – Long pointed teeth grip and pierce food – Teeth with flat surface grind and crush food

65 Which skull is of a carnivore? Herbivore?

66 Digesting Food Foods have carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids – are too big for animal cells to absorb, so must be broken into smaller chemicals- process is called digestion Animals digest food by secreting (form and release) digestive enzymes – Enzyme is a substance that speeds up chemical change

67 Digesting Food Sponges digestive enzyme works inside the cell, so the particles already need to be very small- packaged in a vacuole then the enzyme breaks it down into small chemicals then the cell can absorb the chemicals (food has to be very small already) Most other animals digest food outside the cell – Have a space were digestion begins – These animals can eat much larger foods

68 Sponge Vacuole

69 Gastrovascular Cavities Cnidarians (like hydra), and flatworms digest food in a hollow space called a gastrovascular cavity – Has only 1 opening (the mouth) – Food goes in the mouth- cavity has special cells which secrete digestive enzymes which break food into smaller particles the cell then can then absorb the particles Material that is not digested leaves through the mouth

70 Gastrovascular Cavities

71 Digestive Tracts More developed animals have a digestive tract Tube like space with an opening at both ends Food moves in one direction Different parts of the tract carry out different functions Main function is to store food, digest food, and absorbing nutrients

72 Digestive Tracts Bird – Enters mouth, passes down the esophagus to the crop, where it is stored – In the stomach the food mixes with acid and digestive enzymes – The mixture moves to the gizzard where it grinds it into a watery paste – more digestive enzymes are added in the intestine- this is where digestion is completed and the walls of the intestine absorbs the small chemicals – Material that is not digested leaves the digestive tract through the other opening called the anus Some animals have some differences- humans do not have a crop or gizzard ( the human stomach carries out those functions)

73 Objective Recap: Name 3 kinds of animals that use filter feeding to get food. How are cicadas different in the way they feed? Why must animals digest their food? Name and describe the type of digestive space found in cnidarians. What functions does the digestive tract perform?

74 Respiration and Circulation Objective: Explain gas exchange in simple and complex animals. Tell the difference between open and closed circulatory systems. Trace the flow of blood through a bird or mammal.

75 By the end of the lesson you should be able to answer: How are gases exchanged in a sponge? Describe the system that insects use to respire. What is the difference between an open and closed circulatory system? What is the function of the atria in a vertebrate heart? In a bird’s heart, where does blood go from the right ventricle?

76 Respiration and Circulation For animals to get energy from food, Oxygen needs to be joined with the food particles and CO 2 is the waste product – Called Respiration – Animals Respire in different ways

77 Gas Exchange in Simple Animals Sponges and Cnidarians are made of 2 cell layers – Each layer touches water to get O 2 – get rid of CO 2 by diffusion – Diffusion is movement from a high concentration to low concentration – O 2 concentration is higher in water so moves into cells- CO 2 Is higher in animal so moves out Flatworms have thin body- most cells touch water outside or in gastrovascular cavity Hydra- all cell do diffusion

78 Gas Exchange in Simple Animals Oxygen Carbon dioxide

79 Gas Exchange in Other Animals Most animals have more than 2 cell layers so need a special organ for gas exchange. Live in water= gills – Feathery structure with large surface area for quick diffusion- O 2 from water into gills and CO 2 in opposite direction

80 Gas Exchange in Other Animals Live on land- exchange O 2 and CO 2 with air – Insects use tubes Fine branches that enter almost all animal’s cells. Entrance to tubes are scattered all over the animal’s body – Most other animals use lungs Like balloons inside the body Inhaling gets air inside and exhaling pushes air out Have large surface area for gas exchange

81 Gas Exchange in Other Animals

82 Circulatory Systems Animals must get O 2 from lungs or gills to the rest of the body and get rid of CO 2 to leave the body. Circulatory- flowing in a circle Blood also carries nutrients from the digestive tract to cells. Set of tubes (blood vessels) and 1 or more pumps (heart).

83 Circulatory Systems Open Circulatory System Arthropods and most mollusks Blood leaves the vessel and enters spaces around organs Flows slowly through spaces and makes direct contact with cells Closed Circulatory System Earthworms, Vertebrates, and some mollusks Blood stays inside vessels at all times Smallest vessels have very thin walls O 2 and CO 2 diffuse into or out of the blood across these walls

84 Vertebrate Circulatory Systems o_id=49140&title=Blood_Flow o_id=49140&title=Blood_Flow Single heart that is divided into enclosed spaces Atria- chamber that releases blood that returns to the heart. Ventricles- chambers that pump blood out of the heart – FISH- 1 Atria, 1 Ventricle – AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES- 2 Atria, 1 Ventricle – BIRDS, MAMMALS, SOME REPTILES- 2 Atria, 2 Ventricle

85 Vertebrate Circulatory Systems

86 Objective Recap: How are gases exchanged in a sponge? Describe the system that insects use to respire. What is the difference between an open and closed circulatory system? What is the function of the atria in a vertebrate heart? In a bird’s heart, where does blood go from the right ventricle?

87 How Animals Reproduce Objective: Compare asexual and sexual reproduction. Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each type of reproduction. Compare the gestation times of different mammals.

88 Questions You Need To Know: What is an advantage and a disadvantage of asexual reproduction? Name some animals that reproduce by asexual reproduction. What is the main advantage of sexual reproduction? What method of reproduction is used by most animals? Describe the process of fertilization.

89 Asexual Reproduction Only 1 parent. Advantage- can reproduce alone, does not need to find a mate. Disadvantage- offspring are exact copies of parent. – Likely to respond to changes in the environment in the same way- if change kills one offspring will likely kill them all. – Favorable in environments that do not change much. New organism is identical to parent organism. – Piece of sponge, sea star, and sea anemone can fall off and grow into a new one.

90 Sexual Reproduction How most animals reproduce. A cell from one parent joins with a cell from the other. Need both male and female parents – Female= eggs – Male= sperm Sperm and egg are called sex cells

91 Sexual Reproduction Testes male sex organ Produce sperm Tail allows it to move Ovaries Female sex organ Produce eggs - egg cell contains food for the early stage of the developing offspring

92 Sexual Reproduction When nucleus of the sperm and nucleus of egg join= fertilization – Become one cell – Called ZYGOTE- begins to develop a new organism – m_meets_egg m_meets_egg – 75/ 75/

93 Sexual Reproduction Disadvantage- organism must find a mate to reproduce. Advantage- each offspring is unique- combination of traits from both parents.

94 Artificial sperm and eggs from stem cells n n Essay- what do you think about reproduction through about artificial sperm and egg cells. – Pros/ cons

95 Animal Gestation Times Different mammals have different gestation times. – Depends on size of animal Gestation time is period of time from the fertilization of an egg until birth occurs. In general the larger the animal the longer gestation time.

96 Animal Gestation Times MammalAppropriate Number Of Days Mouse20 Rabbit31 Cat/Dog63 Pig115 Monkey210 Human275 Cattle281 Horse336 Whale360 Elephant634

97 Objective Recap: What is an advantage and a disadvantage of asexual reproduction? Name some animals that reproduce by asexual reproduction. What is the main advantage of sexual reproduction? What method of reproduction is used by most animals? Describe the process of fertilization.


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