4Classifying AnimalsMore than 1 million different kinds of animals have been identified in the world.Divide into groups based on similarities.Birds: Falcons, Sparrows, Geese
5The Seven Levels of Classifiction Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (King Philip came over for great soup)Species: represents a single type of organism. A group of organisms that can breed with one other to produce offspring like themselves.
6A Place for Every Organism Every organism that has been identified has its own place in the classification system.Organisms that are very similar belong to the same genus.Some classification groups have a large number of species, where others have just a few.Order Coleoptera has over 360,000, while Proboscidea only has 2 (African elephant and Asian elephant)
8Scientific Names Most people call animals by common names Mountain lion: aka puma, cougar, catmount,and American Panther.June Bug: at least a dozen different beetles that have the same name, so no way of knowing which species it is.The same animal may have different names in different animals as well: Owl- gufo (Italian), hibou (French), and buho Spanish)
9Scientific Names Biologists give each species a specific name. Consists of 2 wordsThe organisms genus, and the species label.Mountain Lion: Felis concolor (Felis concolor) – always italic or underlined and the first word is capital but second is not.What is the scientific name for the African elephant?The scientific name of each species is unique- the scientific name is the same around the world.
10Do Now: What is the scientific name for the African Elephant?
12Objective Recap:What are the 7 classification groups called? – in orderHow are scientific names written, and what classification groups are used to identify the species?
13Vertebrates- Lesson 2Objective: Learn the 5 classifications of vertebrates.
14Vertebrates Animal with a backbone Nearly 50,000 species of vertebrates in the world
15Features of Vertebrates 3 features that make them different.Internal skeleton- made of bone or cartilage (some other animals have internal skeleton but it is made of different material)Backbone- made of tiny smaller bones or blocks of cartilage called a vertebraSkull- surrounds and protects the brainDivided into 7 classes-3 fishOther 4 amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals.
16FishOver 24,000 species of fish- more species of fish than any other kind of vertebrateAll live in water and breathe with gillsMost have skeletons made of bone- called bony fish (bass, trout, salmon, etc.)Body is covered with scales that overlap- protection and smoothSwim bladder- filled with gas- by changing amount of gas can move up and down
17Fish Sharks, rays, and skates are 2nd type Skeleton made of cartilage not bonePowerful jaws and rows of teethTiny scales make skin feel like sandpaper
18Fish Lampreys and hagfish are 3rd type Jawless fish and no scales Skeleton made of cartilage
19AmphibiansAmphibians have smooth, scaleless skin which is permeable to water. Water can evaporate easily from the skin, and an amphibian can dry up and die in a few hours if it does not have access to water. Thus amphibians tend to be active at times when evaporation is minimized: at night and when it rains.
20Amphibians About 5,000 species of frogs, toads, and salamanders. Amphibian- Greek word meaning “double life”Part of life in water and rest on landWhat is an example of an amphibian?Frogs go through metamorphosis- a major change in form that occurs as some animals develop into adults
21Amphibians Adults breathe with lungs or through skin Skin is thin and needs to stay moistEggs don’t have shells so must be laid in water or where the ground is wet.
22ReptilesReptiles were the world's first truly terrestrial vertebrates. All reptiles have scaly skin that can withstand dessication and lay eggs with hard shells, therefore they are not tied to the water like their relatives, the amphibians. Since they can live on land, they also have an expanded lung system.What are some examples of reptiles?Reptiles include turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes and tuatara (found only in New Zealand).
23Reptiles Snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators, and crocodiles About 7,000 speciesEither live in the water (sea turtle) or on land (tortoise)Skin is scaly and watertight- can live in dry places without drying out.
24Reptiles Most lay eggs on land Have a soft shell to not let baby from drying outAll breathe with lungs so must come for air if live in water.Dinosaurs were reptiles
25Cold/Warm Blooded Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold-blooded Body temperature changes with the temperature of their surroundingsBirds and mammals are warm-bloodedBody temperature stays the same with change of temperature of surroundings
26Birds More than 9,000 species Almost all can fly Have feathers- allow lift and smooth lines of bodyHave hollow bones that keep skeleton light
27Birds Flying requires a lot of energy so need to eat frequently Feathers keep bird warmAll birds breathe with lungs and beaks that are like a hornBirds lay eggs with hard shells
28MammalsNamed for mammary gland- milk producing structures on the chest or abdomenMore than 4,000 species have young that develop inside mother (bears, dogs, humans) and 300 have babies that develop in a pouch on the mother (opossum, kangaroo). The duck- billed platypus and spiny anteater are the only mammals that lay eggs.
29Mammals Have hair that covers most of the body Hair helps keep in body heatMost live on land, but some live in water (whales and porpoises)All breathe with lungs
31Invertebrates- Lesson 3 Objective: describe the features of sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms, mollusks, echinoderms, and artropods.
32By the end of the lesson you will be able to answer: How do sponges feed?Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry.Give an example of a flat worm, round worm and segmented worm.Explain why arthropods molt.How do echinoderms move?
33Invertebrates Does not have a backbone Makes up 97% of all animal speciesBelong to more than 30 phyla
34SpongesSimplest animals bodies have 2 layers of cells without any tissues or organsAll 10,000 species live in waterStrain food particles out of water as water goes through itA sponge used in thebath is the skeleton of adead sponge
35Cnidarians Jellyfish, corals, and hydra About 10,000 species all live in waterBody parts are arranges like spokes on wheels- radial symmetry
36Flatworms Flat and thin Left half and right half are the same- bilateral symmetryMore than 20,000 species- most are parasites that live in other animals
37FlatwormsEx: tapeworm-parasite that lives in the intestine of vertebrates and absorbs nutrients through their skinPeople can get if eat infected meat that has not been cooked enough
38Roundworms Long round bodies that come to a point at the ends Binary symmetryMost of the 80,000 species are not parasiticLive in soil or waterSome that live in soil eat insect pests so good for plantsAbout 150 are parasitic- many live in humans- hookworm go through the skin when people walk barefoot in places that are not clean
39This is an example of a parasitic roundworm, Ascaris, in a young child This is an example of a parasitic roundworm, Ascaris, in a young child. Trichinella is responsible for the most serious roundworm-caused disease, which is known as trichinosis. They live in pigs’ intestines and produce young that make their way to muscle tissue and form tough cysts. Source:
40Segmented Worms Body divided into many sections Live in soil, freshwater, or the ocean15,000 species
41Segmented Worms Earthworms Leeches tunnel through soil and allow air to enter it which helps plants grow- eat small invertebrates, some are parasitesParasites attach to skin of vertebrates and feed on blood.- While feeding, leeches release a chemical that keeps blood flowing
42Enter the leech. Not only does it suck out excess blood, but its saliva contains a powerful blood thinner. So even after it fills up and drops off, bleeding continues.Douglas Chepeha, an ear, nose and throat surgeon at the University of Michigan, treats two or three patients a year with leeches after rebuilding faces or mouths decimated by cancer.Typically, leeches are used one at a time and replaced as they drop off — usually every 20 minutes — for 24 to 48 hours, then intermittently for a few days afterward, Chepeha says.
43Mollusks More than 112,000 species Divide into 3 parts- head, body, footLive on land, fresh water, or oceans
44Mollusks Snails and slugs make up largest group Others include clams, scallops, and oystersShell is made of 2 hinged pieces that open and closeSquid and octopus do not have outer shell, but can swim quickly as hunt for fish and other animals.
45Arthropods Largest group of invertebrates. Make up more that ¾ all animals speciesMajor groups include: crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and insects
46Arthropods Segmented animals with joined legs Most have antennae which use to feel, taste, or smellAll have external skeleton that supports the body and protects thetissues insideCan bend at jointsExternal skeleton is notable to grow so must shedits skeleton to grow
47Arthropods Shedding skeleton is called molting Begins to produce a new skeleton before it molts.After molting, it takes a few days to harden completelySoft shelled crabs at restaurants are crabs that have just molted
48ArthropodsCrustaceans: Lobsters, Crabs, Crayfish (live in water- 5 pairs of legs- claws to handle food) Sow bugs and pill bugs live on land (under rocks and other moist areas)
49Arthropods Arachnids: Spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks 70,000 speciesmost live on landhave 4 pairs of legs
50Arthropods Centipedes (2,5000 species) and Millipedes (10,000 species) live on landbodies have up to 175 segments with 1 pair of legs on each
51Arthropods Insects: mosquitoes, flies, ants and beetles- nearly 1 million specieslive almost everywhere, except for the deep ocean3 pairs of legmost have 1 or 2 pairs of wingsthe only invertebrates that can flymost go through metamorphosis
52Echinoderms Star fish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers 7,000 speciesLive in the oceanHave radical symmetryHave tube feet that attach firmly to surfaces and use them to move
54Objective Recap: How do sponges feed? Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry.Give an example of a flat worm, round worm and segmented worm.Explain why arthropods molt.How do echinoderms move?
55How Animals Get and Digest Food Objective: describe 3 main ways to get food, explain digestion, and explain the difference between gastrovascular cavity and a digestive tract
56By the end of the lesson you will be able to answer: Name 3 kinds of animals that use filter feeding to get food.How are cicadas different in the way they feed?Why must animals digest their food?Name and describe the type of digestive space found in cnidarians.What functions does the digestive tract perform?
57Filter FeedingMany animals that live in water get food by filtering it, or straining it.Since they stay in one place, Sponges get food by straining bacteria and protists from water as they pass through their bodies.
58Filter FeedingBarnacles use their legs like screens to collect food particles.Mollusks (clams and oysters) tend to remain in one spot and use gills to strain food out of water.Some filter feeders do move, like whales- harvest millions of tiny animals by swimming with their mouth open.
59Feeding on FluidsSome animals get their food from fluids of plants or other animals.Aphids and cicadas are insects that have piercing mouthparts- draw sap from roots, leaves, and stems.
60Feeding on FluidsBees, butterflies, and hummingbirds draw nectar from flowers.Spiders and assassin bugs capture insects and suck the fluid from their bodies.Leeches, mosquitoes, and horseflies feed on the blood of vertebrates, including humans
61Consuming Large Pieces of Food Some animals consume (eat) large pieces of solid food.Sometimes they eat the entire organism.Use different kinds of body structures to capture and consume their food.
62Consuming Large Pieces of Food Hydras, jellyfish, and other cnidarians have tentacles that have stinging cells on the ends they sting their food then bring it to their mouthMany insects have mountparts that can cut and chewgrasshoppers, termites,and beetles eat plants(herbivores)Dragonflies and prayingmantises eat other insects(carnivores)
63Consuming Large Pieces of Food Vertebrates are the only animals that have teethof different shapes and sizeeach tooth has a specific job
64Consuming Large Pieces of Food Kind of teeth indicate what kind of food it eatscarnivores have sharp pointed teeth that tear fleshherbivores have large flat teeth for grinding plantsChisel- like teeth in the front cut the foodLong pointed teeth grip and pierce foodTeeth with flat surface grind and crush food
66Digesting Food Foods have carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are too big for animal cells to absorb, so must be broken into smaller chemicals- process is called digestionAnimals digest food by secreting (form and release) digestive enzymesEnzyme is a substance that speeds up chemical change
67Digesting FoodSponges digestive enzyme works inside the cell, so the particles already need to be very small- packaged in a vacuole then the enzyme breaks it down into small chemicals then the cell can absorb the chemicals (food has to be very small already)Most other animals digest food outside the cellHave a space were digestion beginsThese animals can eat much larger foods
69Gastrovascular Cavities Cnidarians (like hydra), and flatworms digest food in a hollow space called a gastrovascular cavityHas only 1 opening (the mouth)Food goes in the mouth- cavity has special cells which secrete digestive enzymes which break food into smaller particles the cell then can then absorb the particlesMaterial that is not digested leaves through the mouth
71Digestive Tracts More developed animals have a digestive tract Tube like space with an opening at both endsFood moves in one directionDifferent parts of the tract carry out different functionsMain function is to store food, digest food, and absorbing nutrients
72Digestive TractsBirdEnters mouth, passes down the esophagus to the crop, where it is storedIn the stomach the food mixes with acid and digestive enzymesThe mixture moves to the gizzard where it grinds it into a watery pastemore digestive enzymes are added in the intestine- this is where digestion is completed and the walls of the intestine absorbs the small chemicalsMaterial that is not digested leaves the digestive tract through the other opening called the anusSome animals have some differences- humans do not have a crop or gizzard ( the human stomach carries out those functions)
73Objective Recap:Name 3 kinds of animals that use filter feeding to get food.How are cicadas different in the way they feed?Why must animals digest their food?Name and describe the type of digestive space found in cnidarians.What functions does the digestive tract perform?
74Respiration and Circulation Objective: Explain gas exchange in simple and complex animals.Tell the difference between open and closed circulatory systems.Trace the flow of blood through a bird or mammal.
75By the end of the lesson you should be able to answer: How are gases exchanged in a sponge?Describe the system that insects use to respire.What is the difference between an open and closed circulatory system?What is the function of the atria in a vertebrate heart?In a bird’s heart, where does blood go from the right ventricle?
76Respiration and Circulation For animals to get energy from food, Oxygen needs to be joined with the food particles and CO2 is the waste productCalled RespirationAnimals Respire in different ways
77Gas Exchange in Simple Animals Sponges and Cnidarians are made of 2 cell layersEach layer touches water to get O2get rid of CO2 by diffusionDiffusion is movement from a high concentration to low concentrationO2 concentration is higher in water so moves into cells- CO2 Is higher in animal so moves outFlatworms have thin body- most cells touch water outside or in gastrovascular cavityHydra- all cell do diffusion
78Gas Exchange in Simple Animals Carbon dioxideOxygen
79Gas Exchange in Other Animals Most animals have more than 2 cell layers so need a special organ for gas exchange.Live in water= gillsFeathery structure with large surface area for quick diffusion- O2 from water into gills and CO2 in opposite direction
80Gas Exchange in Other Animals Live on land- exchange O2 and CO2 with airInsects use tubesFine branches that enter almost all animal’s cells.Entrance to tubes are scattered all over the animal’s bodyMost other animals use lungsLike balloons inside the bodyInhaling gets air inside and exhaling pushes air outHave large surface area for gas exchange
82Circulatory SystemsAnimals must get O2 from lungs or gills to the rest of the body and get rid of CO2 to leave the body.Circulatory- flowing in a circleBlood also carries nutrients from the digestive tract to cells.Set of tubes (blood vessels) and 1 or more pumps (heart).
83Circulatory Systems Open Circulatory System Closed Circulatory System Earthworms, Vertebrates, and some mollusksBlood stays inside vessels at all timesSmallest vessels have very thin wallsO2 and CO2 diffuse into or out of the blood across these wallsArthropods and most mollusksBlood leaves the vessel and enters spaces around organsFlows slowly through spaces and makes direct contact with cells
84Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Single heart that is divided into enclosed spacesAtria- chamber that releases blood that returns to the heart.Ventricles- chambers that pump blood out of the heartFISH- 1 Atria, 1 VentricleAMPHIBIANS & REPTILES- 2 Atria, 1 VentricleBIRDS, MAMMALS, SOME REPTILES- 2 Atria, 2 Ventricle
85Vertebrate Circulatory Systems L.A. R.A.L.V. R.V.
86Objective Recap: How are gases exchanged in a sponge? Describe the system that insects use to respire.What is the difference between an open and closed circulatory system?What is the function of the atria in a vertebrate heart?In a bird’s heart, where does blood go from the right ventricle?
87How Animals ReproduceObjective: Compare asexual and sexual reproduction.Recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each type of reproduction.Compare the gestation times of different mammals.
88Questions You Need To Know: What is an advantage and a disadvantage of asexual reproduction?Name some animals that reproduce by asexual reproduction.What is the main advantage of sexual reproduction?What method of reproduction is used by most animals?Describe the process of fertilization.
89Asexual Reproduction Only 1 parent. Advantage- can reproduce alone, does not need to find a mate.Disadvantage- offspring are exact copies of parent.Likely to respond to changes in the environment in the same way- if change kills one offspring will likely kill them all. – Favorable in environments that do not change much.New organism is identical to parent organism.Piece of sponge, sea star, and sea anemone can fall off and grow into a new one.
90Sexual Reproduction How most animals reproduce. A cell from one parent joins with a cell from the other.Need both male and female parentsFemale= eggsMale= spermSperm and egg are called sex cells
91Sexual Reproduction Testes Ovaries male sex organ Produce sperm Tail allows it to moveOvariesFemale sex organProduce eggs- egg cell contains food for the early stage of the developing offspring
92Sexual ReproductionWhen nucleus of the sperm and nucleus of egg join= fertilizationBecome one cellCalled ZYGOTE- begins to develop a new organism
93Sexual ReproductionDisadvantage- organism must find a mate to reproduce.Advantage- each offspring is unique- combination of traits from both parents.
94Artificial sperm and eggs from stem cells Essay- what do you think about reproduction through about artificial sperm and egg cells.Pros/ cons
95Animal Gestation Times Different mammals have different gestation times.Depends on size of animalGestation time is period of time from the fertilization of an egg until birth occurs.In general the larger the animal the longer gestation time.
96Animal Gestation Times MammalAppropriate Number Of DaysMouse20Rabbit31Cat/Dog63Pig115Monkey210Human275Cattle281Horse336Whale360Elephant634
97Objective Recap:What is an advantage and a disadvantage of asexual reproduction?Name some animals that reproduce by asexual reproduction.What is the main advantage of sexual reproduction?What method of reproduction is used by most animals?Describe the process of fertilization.