2Classifying Animals1 characteristic used to classify animals is whether or not they have a vertebral column.Other names for a vertebral column: backbone, spine, or spinal column
3VertebratesAnimals that have a vertebral column are called vertebrates.5 groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishAnimals that do not have a vertebral column are called invertebrates. Invertebrates make up 97% of all the animals in the world.
4Characteristics of vertebrates ALL vertebrates have…Vertebral ColumnEndoskeletonBrain Protected by a CraniumSpinal CordClosed Circulatory System
5Characteristics of vertebrates Vertebral ColumnMade up of individual bones called vertebrae.Vertebrae are connected by tissue called cartilage.Cartilage is softer and more flexible than bone. (like our ears and nose)
6Characteristics of vertebrates EndoskeletonMeans our skeleton is inside our bodies.Made up of vertebral column, other bones, and cartilage.Gives the body structureProvides a place for muscles to attachProtects vital organs, like brain, heart, and lungs
7Characteristics of vertebrates Brain Protected by a CraniumA cranium is the bones of the skull.The cranium covers the brain.
8Characteristics of vertebrates Spinal CordLocated inside the vertebral columnMade up of nerves that carry messages from the brain to all parts of the body and from all parts of the body back to the brainProtected by the vertebral column
9Characteristics of vertebrates Closed Circulatory SystemBlood circulates through the body in an endless loop of blood vessels.Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells.Blood removes waste products from cells.
11Classifying Vertebrates Vertebrates are sorted into groups called classes.Classes are based on things like…Body coveringsHow they get oxygen into their bodiesInternal body temperatureHow they reproduce5 Classes of VertebratesMammalsBirdsReptilesAmphibiansFish
12Classifying Vertebrates Body CoveringsReptiles- dry, scaly skinAmphibians- moist, smooth skinFish- skin with overlapping scalesBirds- skin covered in feathersMammals- skin covered by hair
13Classifying Vertebrates How They Get Oxygen into Their BodiesVertebrates bring oxygen into their bodies and release carbon dioxide.Lungs- mammals, birds, reptiles, & most adult amphibiansGills- fish & some young amphibiansSome amphibians (like salamanders) can also absorb oxygen through their moist skin.
14Classifying Vertebrates Internal Body TemperatureHomeotherm- warm-blooded- This means that the body temperature remains pretty constant (about the same).Poikilotherm- cold-blooded- This means that the body temperature is able to change with its surroundings. (Low body temperature when it’s cold & high body temperature when it’s hot)Homeotherms- birds & mammalsPoikilotherms- reptiles, amphibians, & fish
15Classifying Vertebrates How They ReproduceReproduction means making more of one’s own kindMammals- young are born liveBirds, Reptiles, Fish, Amphibians- young develop in eggs outside the mother’s bodyBirds- Hard-Shelled Eggs (on the ground or in nests)Reptiles- Soft, Leathery Eggs (on land or buried underground)Fish & Amphibians- Eggs do not have shells. (in water)
17Classifying Invertebrates 5 Phyla of InvertebratesAnnelidsCnidariansEchinodermsMollusksArthropods
18Classifying Invertebrates AnnelidsLive in water or damp soilLong, cylinder-shaped bodiesBody is divided into segmentsEx. Earthworm, Leech
19Classifying Invertebrates CnidariansMost live in salt waterStinging tentaclesEx. Jelly Fish, Sea Anemone
20Classifying Invertebrates EchinodermsLive in salt waterHard, spiny outer body coverTube feetEx. Sea Star, Sand Dollar
21Classifying Invertebrates MollusksUsually live in waterHard shellMuscular footEx. Snail, Clam, Octopus
22Classifying Invertebrates ArthropodsSegmented body with jointed legsExoskeletonMolt as they growEx. Insects (wasp, butterfly, cockroach), Arachnids (spider, scorpion), Malocostracans (lobster, shrimp), Merostomata (horseshoe crab), Chilopods & Diplopods (centipedes & millipedes)
23Life Cycles of vertebrates Life Cycle- the complete cycle from the beginning of an animal’s life until the time it produces a new animal like itself.Some animals look like their parents from the time they are born.Other animals will not look like their parents until they are older.
24Life Cycles of vertebrates Mammals, birds, & reptiles are born looking similar to their parents.Mammals- begin their life cycle inside their mother’s bodyBirds & Reptiles- begin their life cycle inside eggs
25Life Cycles of vertebrates Life Cycle of a Chicken- BirdEgg, Chick, AdultLife Cycle of an Alligator- ReptileEgg, Hatchling, Adult
26Life Cycles of vertebrates Young amphibians & fish hatch having bodies that look very different from the bodies of their parents.Metamorphosis- the changing of an animal’s body form during its life cycle3 stages in the life cycle of amphibians & fishEggLarvaAdultAmphibians & Fish begin their life cycle inside eggs.Baby amphibians & fish are called larva.
27Life Cycles of vertebrates Life Cycle of a Frog- AmphibianEgg, Larva, AdultLarva StageTadpoleTadpole without gillsTadpole with legsFroglet
28Life Cycles of vertebrates Changing Characteristics of a Frog During MetamorphosisEggTadpole- 2 WeeksTadpole- 4 WeeksTadpole- 6 WeeksFroglet- 9 WeeksAdult Frog-1 YearWhere It LivesWaterLandHow It BreathesXGillsLungsBody PartsTailNo LegsBack LegsFront Legs- growingNo TailLegsWhat It EatsPlantsPlants & AnimalsAnimals
29Life Cycles of InsectsInsects begin their life cycles in an egg.Young insects have bodies that look very different than their parents.Metamorphosis- changing of an animal’s body form during its life cycle
30Life Cycles of InsectsSome insects look similar to their parents when they hatch but are missing some of the body parts an adult has.Ex: Baby grasshoppers & cockroaches look like their parents but do not have wings.Wings develop as they grow older.Incomplete Metamorphosis- when new body features of an insect develop gradually as it grows
31Incomplete Metamorphosis Life Cycles of InsectsIncomplete Metamorphosis3 StagesEggNymphAdultNymph- young insect that looks like its parent but is missing some body parts
32Life Cycles of InsectsSome insects look completely different from their parents when they hatch.Ex: Eggs of butterflies hatch and out comes a caterpillar. Caterpillar looks completely different from the adult butterfly.Complete Metamorphosis- process where young change form and look completely different as adults
33Life Cycles of Insects Complete Metamorphosis Larva- baby insect 4 StagesEggLarvaPupaAdultLarva- baby insectPupa- stage where the larva is ready to change to an adult. Body completely changes and develops new structures.Ex: butterflies, bees, beetles, ants
34What Animals eat All animals consume (eat) other organisms. Some eat plants.Some eat animals.Some eat plants and animals.Some only eat dead plants and animals.
35What Animals eatHerbivores- animals that eat only plantsEx: cows, mice, rabbits, deer, geese, iguanas, bees, grasshoppers
36What Animals eatCarnivores- animals that eat only animals (meat)Ex: lions, hawks, snakes, alligators, jellyfish, lobsters, sea stars, praying mantises, spiders
37What Animals eatOmnivores- animals that eat both plants & animalsEx: bears, skunks, robins, hummingbirds, sea urchins, ants, cockroaches, chimpanzees, human beings
38What Animals eatDetritivores- animals that eat only dead plants and animalsEx: earthworms, termites, millipedes, pill bugs
39How Animals obtain energy Animal cells use glucose & oxygen to produce energyFood provides the glucose.Breathing provides the oxygen.Digestive, respiratory, & circulatory systems are in charge of bringing the glucose and oxygen to the cells.
40How Animals obtain energy Digestive SystemBreaks down food & changes it into things the body can absorbDigestion changes a lot of food into sugars like glucose.
41How Animals obtain energy Respiratory SystemBrings oxygen into the body & removes carbon dioxideThese gases are either exchanged in lungs or gills.
42How Animals obtain energy Circulatory SystemCarries glucose from digestion and oxygen from breathing to cellsCarries carbon dioxide away from cells
43How Animals obtain energy Comparing Respiration in Plants & AnimalsGlucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + waterWhat is the source of the glucose?How does oxygen enter the organism?How do glucose & oxygen get to cells?Plantsphotosynthesisstomataphloem tissueAnimalsDigestive System(eating food)Respiratory System(breathing with lungs/gills)Circulatory System