Presentation on theme: "4 TH GRADE ZOOLOGY UNIT ANIMALS. CLASSIFYING ANIMALS 1 characteristic used to classify animals is whether or not they have a vertebral column. Other names."— Presentation transcript:
4 TH GRADE ZOOLOGY UNIT ANIMALS
CLASSIFYING ANIMALS 1 characteristic used to classify animals is whether or not they have a vertebral column. Other names for a vertebral column: backbone, spine, or spinal column
VERTEBRATES Animals that have a vertebral column are called vertebrates. 5 groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish Animals that do not have a vertebral column are called invertebrates. Invertebrates make up 97% of all the animals in the world.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES ALL vertebrates have… 1.Vertebral Column 2.Endoskeleton 3.Brain Protected by a Cranium 4.Spinal Cord 5.Closed Circulatory System
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES Vertebral Column Made up of individual bones called vertebrae. Vertebrae are connected by tissue called cartilage. Cartilage is softer and more flexible than bone. (like our ears and nose)
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES Endoskeleton Means our skeleton is inside our bodies. Made up of vertebral column, other bones, and cartilage. Gives the body structure Provides a place for muscles to attach Protects vital organs, like brain, heart, and lungs
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES Brain Protected by a Cranium A cranium is the bones of the skull. The cranium covers the brain.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES Spinal Cord Located inside the vertebral column Made up of nerves that carry messages from the brain to all parts of the body and from all parts of the body back to the brain Protected by the vertebral column
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES Closed Circulatory System Blood circulates through the body in an endless loop of blood vessels. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells. Blood removes waste products from cells.
CLASSIFYING VERTEBRATES Vertebrates are sorted into groups called classes. Classes are based on things like… Body coverings How they get oxygen into their bodies Internal body temperature How they reproduce 5 Classes of Vertebrates Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish
CLASSIFYING VERTEBRATES Body Coverings Reptiles- dry, scaly skin Amphibians- moist, smooth skin Fish- skin with overlapping scales Birds- skin covered in feathers Mammals- skin covered by hair
CLASSIFYING VERTEBRATES How They Get Oxygen into Their Bodies Vertebrates bring oxygen into their bodies and release carbon dioxide. Lungs- mammals, birds, reptiles, & most adult amphibians Gills- fish & some young amphibians Some amphibians (like salamanders) can also absorb oxygen through their moist skin.
CLASSIFYING VERTEBRATES Internal Body Temperature Homeotherm- warm-blooded- This means that the body temperature remains pretty constant (about the same). Poikilotherm- cold-blooded- This means that the body temperature is able to change with its surroundings. (Low body temperature when it’s cold & high body temperature when it’s hot) Homeotherms- birds & mammals Poikilotherms- reptiles, amphibians, & fish
CLASSIFYING VERTEBRATES How They Reproduce Reproduction means making more of one’s own kind Mammals- young are born live Birds, Reptiles, Fish, Amphibians- young develop in eggs outside the mother’s body Birds- Hard-Shelled Eggs (on the ground or in nests) Reptiles- Soft, Leathery Eggs (on land or buried underground) Fish & Amphibians- Eggs do not have shells. (in water)
CLASSIFYING INVERTEBRATES Annelids Live in water or damp soil Long, cylinder-shaped bodies Body is divided into segments Ex. Earthworm, Leech
CLASSIFYING INVERTEBRATES Cnidarians Most live in salt water Stinging tentacles Ex. Jelly Fish, Sea Anemone
CLASSIFYING INVERTEBRATES Echinoderms Live in salt water Hard, spiny outer body cover Tube feet Ex. Sea Star, Sand Dollar
CLASSIFYING INVERTEBRATES Mollusks Usually live in water Hard shell Muscular foot Ex. Snail, Clam, Octopus
CLASSIFYING INVERTEBRATES Arthropods Segmented body with jointed legs Exoskeleton Molt as they grow Ex. Insects (wasp, butterfly, cockroach), Arachnids (spider, scorpion), Malocostracans (lobster, shrimp), Merostomata (horseshoe crab), Chilopods & Diplopods (centipedes & millipedes)
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Life Cycle- the complete cycle from the beginning of an animal’s life until the time it produces a new animal like itself. Some animals look like their parents from the time they are born. Other animals will not look like their parents until they are older.
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Mammals, birds, & reptiles are born looking similar to their parents. Mammals- begin their life cycle inside their mother’s body Birds & Reptiles- begin their life cycle inside eggs
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Life Cycle of a Chicken- Bird Egg, Chick, Adult Life Cycle of an Alligator- Reptile Egg, Hatchling, Adult
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Young amphibians & fish hatch having bodies that look very different from the bodies of their parents. Metamorphosis- the changing of an animal’s body form during its life cycle 3 stages in the life cycle of amphibians & fish Egg Larva Adult Amphibians & Fish begin their life cycle inside eggs. Baby amphibians & fish are called larva.
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Life Cycle of a Frog- Amphibian Egg, Larva, Adult Larva Stage Tadpole Tadpole without gills Tadpole with legs Froglet
LIFE CYCLES OF VERTEBRATES Changing Characteristics of a Frog During Metamorphosis EggTadpole- 2 Weeks Tadpole- 4 Weeks Tadpole- 6 Weeks Froglet- 9 Weeks Adult Frog- 1 Year Where It Lives Water Land How It Breathes XGillsLungs Body Parts XTail No Legs Tail No Legs Tail Back Legs Tail Back Legs Front Legs- growing No Tail Legs What It Eats XPlants Plants & Animals Animals
LIFE CYCLES OF INSECTS Insects begin their life cycles in an egg. Young insects have bodies that look very different than their parents. Metamorphosis- changing of an animal’s body form during its life cycle
LIFE CYCLES OF INSECTS Some insects look similar to their parents when they hatch but are missing some of the body parts an adult has. Ex: Baby grasshoppers & cockroaches look like their parents but do not have wings. Wings develop as they grow older. Incomplete Metamorphosis- when new body features of an insect develop gradually as it grows
LIFE CYCLES OF INSECTS Incomplete Metamorphosis 3 Stages Egg Nymph Adult Nymph- young insect that looks like its parent but is missing some body parts
LIFE CYCLES OF INSECTS Some insects look completely different from their parents when they hatch. Ex: Eggs of butterflies hatch and out comes a caterpillar. Caterpillar looks completely different from the adult butterfly. Complete Metamorphosis- process where young change form and look completely different as adults
LIFE CYCLES OF INSECTS Complete Metamorphosis 4 Stages Egg Larva Pupa Adult Larva- baby insect Pupa- stage where the larva is ready to change to an adult. Body completely changes and develops new structures. Ex: butterflies, bees, beetles, ants
WHAT ANIMALS EAT All animals consume (eat) other organisms. Some eat plants. Some eat animals. Some eat plants and animals. Some only eat dead plants and animals.
WHAT ANIMALS EAT Herbivores- animals that eat only plants Ex: cows, mice, rabbits, deer, geese, iguanas, bees, grasshoppers
WHAT ANIMALS EAT Carnivores- animals that eat only animals (meat) Ex: lions, hawks, snakes, alligators, jellyfish, lobsters, sea stars, praying mantises, spiders
WHAT ANIMALS EAT Omnivores- animals that eat both plants & animals Ex: bears, skunks, robins, hummingbirds, sea urchins, ants, cockroaches, chimpanzees, human beings
WHAT ANIMALS EAT Detritivores- animals that eat only dead plants and animals Ex: earthworms, termites, millipedes, pill bugs
HOW ANIMALS OBTAIN ENERGY Animal cells use glucose & oxygen to produce energy Food provides the glucose. Breathing provides the oxygen. Digestive, respiratory, & circulatory systems are in charge of bringing the glucose and oxygen to the cells.
HOW ANIMALS OBTAIN ENERGY Digestive System Breaks down food & changes it into things the body can absorb Digestion changes a lot of food into sugars like glucose.
HOW ANIMALS OBTAIN ENERGY Respiratory System Brings oxygen into the body & removes carbon dioxide These gases are either exchanged in lungs or gills.
HOW ANIMALS OBTAIN ENERGY Circulatory System Carries glucose from digestion and oxygen from breathing to cells Carries carbon dioxide away from cells
HOW ANIMALS OBTAIN ENERGY Comparing Respiration in Plants & Animals Glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water What is the source of the glucose? How does oxygen enter the organism? How do glucose & oxygen get to cells? Plantsphotosynthesisstomataphloem tissue AnimalsDigestive System (eating food) Respiratory System (breathing with lungs/gills) Circulatory System