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Classifying Organisms

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1 Classifying Organisms
Chapter 1 Classifying Organisms

2 How are living things classified?
To classify means to put things into groups. Why do scientists put plants and animals into groups? Classification makes it easier to communicate clearly by having just one name for an organism. Classification helps to organize information about organisms.

3 Classification Systems
A classification system lists organisms in a series of groups. Kingdom - highest group of organization in the classification system. There are 6 kingdoms: 1. Archaebacteria - single celled, no oxygen or sunlight 2. Eubacteria - single celled, need oxygen 3. Protists - single or multi-celled, algea Fungi – single or multi-celled, mushrooms & molds Plants – many cells, make their own food Animals – many celled, cannot make their own food

4 King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti
Seven Levels of the Classification System: Kingdom – highest, most general group Phylum- level of classification below kingdom Class – next level below phylum, smaller group Order – next level below class, smaller group Family – next level below order, smaller group Genus – next level below family, smaller group Species – lowest level of organization - specific

5 The Animal Kingdom Vertebrates and invertebrates are phylums within the animal kingdom. Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates. Animals without backbones are called invertebrates. Within each one of these phylum are classes of animals.

6 5 Classes of Vertebrates
1. Mammals 2. Reptiles 3. Birds 4. Amphibians Fish Each class of vertebrate has specific characteristics that make them unique.

7 Characteristics of Mammals
Breathe air with lungs Make milk for young Body coverings - Hair or fur Warm blooded-keep body temperature constant nearly all the time Young mammals resemble parents The pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death is called the life cycle.

8 Life Cycle of Mammals Birth Growth Reproduction Death
Offspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!

9 Characteristics of Reptiles
Lungs (similar to mammals) Do not feed their young (no milk) Scales that cover their body (no hair or fur like mammals) Cold blooded – body temperature does not remain constant bur changes as the temperature of the air or water changes. Some reptiles live on both land and water. The life cycle of a reptile is similar to a mammal.

10 Life Cycle of Reptiles Young reptiles hatch from eggs
Young reptiles are not cared for by parents Young reptiles feed themselves from birth Growth Reproduction Death Offspring repeats the cycle and the species continues!

11 Characteristics of Birds
Lungs and other organs (similar to mammals) Body coverings – feathers Feed and care for their young Warm blooded – body temperature remains constant. A bird’s life cycle is similar to a reptiles.

12 Life Cycle of Birds Young birds hatch from eggs.
Young birds are cared for by parents Young birds are fed by their parents Growth Reproduction Death Offspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!

13 Mammals, Reptiles, Birds
Vertebrate Birth Body Covering Body Temperature Feed Young Mammals Live Birth Hair or Fur Warm-Blooded Yes - Milk Reptiles Hatch from Eggs Scales Cold-blooded No Birds Feathers Yes – not milk

14 Characteristics of Amphibians
Cold-blooded Soft, moist skin to absorb oxygen and water Do not feed or care for their young Hatch from eggs Metamorphosis – changes during the life cycle The life cycle of an amphibian is very different than that of any other vertebrate due to the process of metamorphosis.

15 Life Cycle of Amphibians
Hatch from eggs in water Grow legs and tail shortens Breathe through gills until lungs are developed Begin to live on land As adults, frogs look nothing like they did when they were young tadpoles. This kind of change is known as metamorphosis and no other class of animal has this life cycle!

16 Characteristics of Fish
Cold-blooded Scales and slimy-coating that helps water flow past them Live in water ONLY! Use gills to get oxygen from water The life cycle of a fish is most like the life cycle of a reptile

17 Life Cycle of Fish Hatch from eggs in water
Not cared for or fed by parents after birth Grow Reproduce Death Offspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!

18 Classes of Invertebrates
Mollusks – clams, snails, slugs, and squids Annelids / Worms – flatworms, earthworms, roundworms Cnidarians – jellyfish and coral Arthropods – insects, lobsters, spiders Most animals on earth do not have backbones. Some invertebrates are too small to be seen with the naked eye.

19 Mollusks Soft body without bones.
Some have a hard outer shell that prevents them from being eaten. Some get oxygen from gills others absorb oxygen through skin.

20 Annelids / Worms Flatworms are very flat and thin. They live in damp or wet places. Roundworms can live on water or on land. Earthworms have segmented bodies Some worms are microscopic and others are huge!

21 Arthropods Largest phylum of animal Arthropod mean “jointed feet”
All arthropods are invertebrates (not all invertebrates are arthropods) Arthropods have bodies that are divided into separate parts. Arthropods get oxygen in many different ways – some have lungs (spiders), tubes (grasshoppers), and gills (lobsters).

22 Characteristics of Plant Kingdom
Make their own food – photosynthesis Distinctive features such as stems, roots, and leaves Some are vascular – transport system made of tubes to carry food and water to all of its parts Organisms in the plant kingdom are multi-cellular. (just like animals)

23 Classification of the Plant Kingdom
Plants are classified according to their transport systems (vascular), whether they produce seeds, or have flowers. Phylum of plants include: Mosses – no flowers or seeds Ferns – vascular, no seeds, no flowers Conifers – vascular, produce seeds, no flowers Flowering plants – vascular, produce seeds, and flowers

24 Fungi Kingdom Not plants because they cannot make their own food.
Not animals because they do not move to catch their food Have hair-like structures that absorb and digest food from the material that they grow on.

25 Protist Kingdom Single celled
Some live inside the digestive system of other animals Not plants because they cannot make their own food. Not animals because they are single celled

26 Archaebacteria Kingdom
Eubacteria Kingdom Single celled Spheres, rods, or spiral shaped No nucleus Archaebacteria Kingdom Single celled organism Survive harsh environments

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