2How are living things classified? To classify means to put things into groups.Why do scientists put plants and animals into groups?Classification makes it easier to communicate clearly by having just one name for an organism.Classification helps to organize information about organisms.
3Classification Systems A classification system lists organisms in a series of groups.Kingdom - highest group of organization in the classification system. There are 6 kingdoms:1. Archaebacteria - single celled, no oxygen or sunlight2. Eubacteria - single celled, need oxygen3. Protists - single or multi-celled, algeaFungi – single or multi-celled, mushrooms & moldsPlants – many cells, make their own foodAnimals – many celled, cannot make their own food
4King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti Seven Levels of the Classification System:Kingdom – highest, most general groupPhylum- level of classification below kingdomClass – next level below phylum, smaller groupOrder – next level below class, smaller groupFamily – next level below order, smaller groupGenus – next level below family, smaller groupSpecies – lowest level of organization - specific
5The Animal KingdomVertebrates and invertebrates are phylums within the animal kingdom.Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates.Animals without backbones are called invertebrates.Within each one of these phylum are classes of animals.
65 Classes of Vertebrates 1. Mammals2. Reptiles3. Birds4. AmphibiansFishEach class of vertebrate has specific characteristics that make them unique.
7Characteristics of Mammals Breathe air with lungsMake milk for youngBody coverings - Hair or furWarm blooded-keep body temperature constant nearly all the timeYoung mammals resemble parentsThe pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death is called the life cycle.
8Life Cycle of Mammals Birth Growth Reproduction Death Offspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!
9Characteristics of Reptiles Lungs (similar to mammals)Do not feed their young (no milk)Scales that cover their body (no hair or fur like mammals)Cold blooded – body temperature does not remain constant bur changes as the temperature of the air or water changes.Some reptiles live on both land and water.The life cycle of a reptile is similar to a mammal.
10Life Cycle of Reptiles Young reptiles hatch from eggs Young reptiles are not cared for by parentsYoung reptiles feed themselves from birthGrowthReproductionDeathOffspring repeats the cycle and the species continues!
11Characteristics of Birds Lungs and other organs (similar to mammals)Body coverings – feathersFeed and care for their youngWarm blooded – body temperature remains constant.A bird’s life cycle is similar to a reptiles.
12Life Cycle of Birds Young birds hatch from eggs. Young birds are cared for by parentsYoung birds are fed by their parentsGrowthReproductionDeathOffspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!
13Mammals, Reptiles, Birds VertebrateBirthBody CoveringBody TemperatureFeed YoungMammalsLive BirthHair or FurWarm-BloodedYes - MilkReptilesHatch from EggsScalesCold-bloodedNoBirdsFeathersYes – not milk
14Characteristics of Amphibians Cold-bloodedSoft, moist skin to absorb oxygen and waterDo not feed or care for their youngHatch from eggsMetamorphosis – changes during the life cycleThe life cycle of an amphibian is very different than that of any other vertebrate due to the process of metamorphosis.
15Life Cycle of Amphibians Hatch from eggs in waterGrow legs and tail shortensBreathe through gills until lungs are developedBegin to live on landAs adults, frogs look nothing like they did when they were young tadpoles. This kind of change is known as metamorphosis and no other class of animal has this life cycle!
16Characteristics of Fish Cold-bloodedScales and slimy-coating that helps water flow past themLive in water ONLY!Use gills to get oxygen from waterThe life cycle of a fish is most like the life cycle of a reptile
17Life Cycle of Fish Hatch from eggs in water Not cared for or fed by parents after birthGrowReproduceDeathOffspring repeat the cycle and the species continues!
18Classes of Invertebrates Mollusks – clams, snails, slugs, and squidsAnnelids / Worms – flatworms, earthworms, roundwormsCnidarians – jellyfish and coralArthropods – insects, lobsters, spidersMost animals on earth do not have backbones. Some invertebrates are too small to be seen with the naked eye.
19Mollusks Soft body without bones. Some have a hard outer shell that prevents them from being eaten.Some get oxygen from gills others absorb oxygen through skin.
20Annelids / WormsFlatworms are very flat and thin. They live in damp or wet places.Roundworms can live on water or on land.Earthworms have segmented bodiesSome worms are microscopic and others are huge!
21Arthropods Largest phylum of animal Arthropod mean “jointed feet” All arthropods are invertebrates (not all invertebrates are arthropods)Arthropods have bodies that are divided into separate parts.Arthropods get oxygen in many different ways – some have lungs (spiders), tubes (grasshoppers), and gills (lobsters).
22Characteristics of Plant Kingdom Make their own food – photosynthesisDistinctive features such as stems, roots, and leavesSome are vascular – transport system made of tubes to carry food and water to all of its partsOrganisms in the plant kingdom are multi-cellular. (just like animals)
23Classification of the Plant Kingdom Plants are classified according to their transport systems (vascular), whether they produce seeds, or have flowers.Phylum of plants include:Mosses – no flowers or seedsFerns – vascular, no seeds, no flowersConifers – vascular, produce seeds, no flowersFlowering plants – vascular, produce seeds, and flowers
24Fungi Kingdom Not plants because they cannot make their own food. Not animals because they do not move to catch their foodHave hair-like structures that absorb and digest food from the material that they grow on.
25Protist Kingdom Single celled Some live inside the digestive system of other animalsNot plants because they cannot make their own food.Not animals because they are single celled