2Science Methods DV – dependent variable Tables and Graphs Steps used to solve a problemObservationQuestioning and stating problemsHypothesizingExperimenting – including a control and experimental group IV – independent variableDV – dependent variableTables and GraphsIV on x-axis and DV on y-axis of a graphEx) Effects of pH on Tadpole SurvivalIV – pHDV-Number of TadpolesCreate an “if, then” statement based on the chart below and the variables provided above.
3Characteristics of Life All living things exhibit several basic life characteristics:Cellular organization*unicellular – one celled* multicellular – many celled with levels oforganization (cellstissuesorgans systems organism)Reproduction*asexual – offspring are genetic clones of parent*sexual – offspring have genetic variation from parentsMetabolism* energy is required for life processes* autotrophs make their own food (photosynthesis/chemosynthesis)* heterotrophs eat other organisms for foodHomeostasis* maintenance or regulation of body conditions such as body temperature, blood sugar level, water balanceHeredity* DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms. The genetic code is “universal”Response to stimuli* responding to the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment are key to survivalGrowth and Development* growth – increase in the amount of living matter either by cell division or cell enlargement* development – any change from conception to death - embryonic, puberty, agingEvolutionary Adaptation* adaptations – structures, behaviors, or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed on from parent to offspring.
4ChemistryOrganisms are composed of organic compounds – carbon containing compounds that can be very large macromoleculesMacromolecules are often built by dehydration synthesis and polymerizationFour main types1) Carbohydrates – composed of monosaccharides primarily glucose2) Lipids – composed of fatty acids joined to glycerol and sometimes phosphate groups, can also include the steroids3) Proteins – composed of amino acids (20 different types) – do most of the work in organisms and are major structural components4) Nucleic Acids – are composed of nucleotides – either DNA or RNARefer to complete macromolecule/biochemistry sheet.Metabolism – is the chemistry of life – all metabolism is controlled by the action of enzymesEnzymes are proteins that function to speed up chemical reactions in the cell. They have a specific shape and interact with a specific substrate which binds at the active site.Enzymes are reusable and are not changed during a chemical reaction. They can be damaged at temperature and pH extremes.
5Complete! Macromolecule Examples (2) Function/Use (1) Chemical StructureCARBOHYDRATELIPIDPROTEINNUCLEIC ACID
6Provide the 3 properties of water and provide an example for each: 1.2.3.Diagram and label a typical oxygen atom:Compare atoms and ions AND explain the importance of ions in biological process:Use the chart below to compare acids and bases by illustrating where you would find hydrogen ions and hydroxides:
7EcologyEcology – is the study of interactions between organisms and the environmentLevels of OrganizationBiosphereBiomesEcosystem CommunityPopulationOrganismWe study an organisms habitat, niche, and trophic levelPopulations – are members of the same species living in the same place at the same time with the potential to interbreedPopulation growth – exponential (J-shape) and logistic (S-Shape)* Limited by factors like disease and competition that are density-dependent or by density-independent factors like natural disaster.* Carrying capacity is seen in logistic growth – the maximum number the environment can supportCommunity Interactions* Competition – intraspecific (same species) or interspecific (diff sp)* Symbiosis – parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism* Succession – both primary (bare rock) and secondary (soil)Ecosystem Level – food chains and webs and matter recycling
8Diagram, label and explain the following: Biomass Energy and Numbers Pyramid:Explain how the 3 pyramids are a model to represent how energy flows through an ecosystem:Food web:Food chain:
9Cells Cell theory - 3 parts 1) cells are basic unit of life 2) cells come from existing cells3) all organisms are composed of cellsProkaryotic versus EukaryoticA) simple A) complexB) has no nucleus B) has a MB nucleusC) has no MB organelles C) has MB organellesD) includes bacteria D) includes protists, fungi, plants, and animalsPlant versus AnimalA) has cell wall A) no cell wallB) has chloroplasts/plastids B) has no plastids/chloroplastsC) has large vacuole C) has small vacuoles
10Diagram a plant cell below: Include all the organelles AND their functions.
11Diagram an animal cell below: Include all the organelles AND their functions
12Cellular Transport Diagram active AND passive transports below: Plasma membrane controls homeostasis (balance)Structure – composed of a phospholipid bilayer withembedded proteins “gates”Function – acts as a selectively permeable boundaryaround the cellTypes of Passive Transport – no energy required1) Diffusion – moves substances from high to low concentrations down their concentration gradient2) Osmosis – the diffusion of water from high to lower water concentrations down its concentration gradientEx) cell in salt water – shrivels Ex) cell in fresh water swells3) Facilitated diffusion – movement of a substance down its concentration through a transport protein channelActive Transport – requires energy – moves substances against the concentration gradient from low to high concentrations (endocytosis and exocytosis)Diagram active AND passive transports below:
13Draw and label the ATP/ADP cycle below: Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4 Draw and label the ATP/ADP cycle below: Uses: ATP stores and releases the _____ in it’s ______ when it needs it!
14PhotosynthesisThe process used by producers to convert sunlight to chemical energy in glucoseOverall equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O O2Large numbers of chloroplasts are found in these mesophyll cells.Chloroplasts are the cellular site of photosynthesis. The light reaction of photosynthesis occurs on the inner membrane called the thylakoid. The dark reaction (aka Calvin Cycle) occurs in the stromaPigments absorb light energyChlorophyll / carotenoidsInput OutputLight Reaction light, water O2, ATPNADPHDark Reaction ATP, CO GLUCOSE
15Photosynthesis: Include inputs/outputs Overall Equation: _______________ 1. Draw a line to indicating the separation between light dependent AND light independent reactions.2. LABEL the inputs and outputs for the following reactions:Light dependent (sun, water, oxygen)Light independent (Carbon dioxide, glucose)Compare photosynthesis and chemosynthesis below:
16Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is the process by which organisms break down food to release its energy. This energy is then stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)Three parts to ATP1) adenine (Nbase)2) ribose (5-C sugar)3) 3 phosphates (high energy)ATP/ADP cycle – when energyis needed for cell work ATPloses a phosphate to become ADPOverall equation: C6H12O O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATPRespiration can be aerobic or anaerobicAerobic AnaerobicO2 required no O2 requiredmost organisms are aerobes few anaerobes (yeast/bacteria)38 ATP ATP3 steps – glycolysis, Krebs cycle, steps – glycolysis and electron transport fermentation (alcoholic andlactic acid)Glycolysis is the first step of bothforms of respiration and occurs inthe cytoplasmIf no oxygen is present after glycolysis,then fermentation occursIf oxygen is present, then the Krebs cycleand e-transport occur in the mitochondria
17Cellular Respiration: Overall equation: _______________________ 1. Draw a line to indicating the separation between the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport chain2. LABEL the inputs and outputs for the following reactions:Glycolysis (pyruvate split, carbon dioxide, energy)Electron transport chain (ATP, water and oxygen)
18DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotidesDNA RNA____________Deoxyribose RiboseA, C, G A, C, GThymine UracilDouble helix Single helixCodes for proteins/RNA Copy of DNA infoReplication – the process used by cells to copy DNA – enzyme unzips DNA and each side of the ladder acts as a template for the building of the new half. Use the N-base paring rules : A-T ; C-GEX) TACGGAC (old strand)ATGCCTG (new strandTranscription – the process of making RNA from DNAEX) TACGGAC (template DNA strand)AUGCCUG (RNA built)3 Types of RNA have arole in protein synthesis1) mRNA – messenger-blueprintfor how to build protein2) tRNA – transfer - carries aminoacids to ribosome3) rRNA – ribosomal – makes upa ribosomeTranslation – the process ofof building a protein by matchingCodons in mRNA to anticodonsof tRNA (use codon chart)Diagram a DNA molecule below:
19Diagram, label and EXPLAIN the following: Replication:Transcription:Translation (protein synthesis):
20Gene and Chromosomal mutations: What are mutations?List and EXPLAIN each chromosomal mutation below:Deletion:Duplication:Inversion:Translocation:List and EXPLAIN each gene mutation below:Point mutation (substitution)Frameshift (insertion and deletion)
21Reproduction Reproduction is a fundamental characteristic of life Propagates your species2 form: asexual and sexualAsexual Sexual____________-1 parent parents (usually)-No gametes Fusion of gametes-Offspring are genetically identical Offspring genetically uniqueto the parent (clones)-Fast, efficient, less energy Slower, less efficient, more energy-No variation Huge amounts of variation-Stable Environment Changing EnvironmentAsexual Strategies1) binary fission2) budding3) fragmentation/fissionSexual strategies1) Internal fertilizationCopulation (vagina/penis) –sperm meets egg in female2) External fertilizationSpawning – eggs and spermreleased into the environmentusually aquaticIn humans fertilization occursin the fallopian tube.
22Cell DivisionHaploid – having one set of chromosomes (n) – gametes – sperm/eggDiploid – having two sets of chromosomes (2n) – body cells – one set is maternal and one is paternalThe cell cycle – Interphase – growth- Mitosis – divisionMitosis creates 2 _________ cells and is forthe purpose of tissue repair and growthin animalsDNA coils to form chromosomesduring cell divisionStages of the cell cycle ( see diagram)Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase,Anaphase, Telophase, CytokinesisMeiosis – cell division that creates 4__________ called gametes – aka –reduction divisionMeiosis involves 2 divisions – Meiosis Iand Meiosis IIMeiosis I has some special events:In Prophase I homologous chromosomespair up and crossing over occurs. Thisrecombination increases geneticvariation for the speciesMetaphase I – Pairs line upAnaphase I – pairs are separatedMeiosis II is similar to mitosis
23Diagram and label the following: Meiosis: Results in _________Mitosis: Results in _________
24Note 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio Simple GeneticsGregor Mendel worked with pea plants to learn the basic patterns of inheritance.Phenotype – what the organism looks likeGenotype – the gene combination – either Homozygous (TT or tt)or Heterozygous (Tt)Monohybrid Cross – follows 1 trait through several generationsP(parental) TT x ttT T T tt geno- all Tt T geno – ¼ TT, ½ Tt, ¼ ttt pheno – all tall t pheno – ¾ Tall; ¼ short(3:1 ratio)Other important monohybrid crossesT t T tT geno- ½ TT; ½ Tt t geno – ½ Tt; ½ ttT pheno – all Tall t pheno– Tall; ½ shortDihybrid cross – follows two traitsTtTTTtttTtTtttNote 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
25Solve the following genetic problems: Dihybrid cross: Fantails (F) are dominate to flat tails (f). Normal eyes (B) are dominate to bubble eyes (b). Two goldfish are mated. The female is heterozygous for fantail and homozygous for bubble eyes, the male is homozygous for flat tail and heterozygous for normal eyes. Find the genotypes and phenotypes of the F1 generation as well as the possible F2 generations.Monohybrid Cross: Assume that white color (W) is dominant over yellow color (w) in squash. If a heterozygous white-fruited plant is pollinated by a yellow-fruited plant, what genotypes, phenotypes, and their ratios would be expected in the F1 generation?Incomplete dominance: In roses, the gene for long stems (L) is dominant over its allele for short stems (l). Also, the gene for red flowers (FR) is incompletely dominant with its allele for white flowers (FW). The heterozygous color condition results in a pink flower. What genotypes and phenotypes would be expected in the F1 if a red, homozygous long stem rose is pollinated by a white, short stem rose? If the F1 were randomly crossed, what would the F2 look like? Give the genotypes, phenotypes and ratios of the F2.
26Complex Genetics Incomplete Dominance – intermediate/blended phenotype Ex) snap dragons Red (RR) X White (R’R’) all PinkR R R R’R’ geno- all RR’ R’ geno- ¼ RR; ½ RR’; ¼ R’R’R’ pheno-all pink R’ pheno- ¼red; ½ pink; ¼ whiteCodominance – both parental phenotypes show up in offspringEx) Chickens Black x White Black and White feathersMultiple Allelism – trait with 3+ allelesex) A, B, O blood typesSex Linkage – genes carried on sex chromosomesEx) hemophilia, color blindness Cross shows acarrier female and a normal male. For a female toinherit the trait the father must have it and themother must at least be a carrierPolygenic Inheritance – traits controlledby many genes Ex) Height, hair colorAneuploidy – condition caused byhaving abnormal chromosome number.Ex) Down’s Syndrome aka Trisomy 21RR’RRRR’R’R’
27DNA Technology Today, DNA techniques include: 1) DNA Extraction – the opening of cells to separate/isolate DNA from other cell parts2) Cutting DNA – large DNA molecules are cut into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. These enzymes recognize and cut DNA at specific sequences. See Fig 13-5 p322.3) Separating DNA – DNA fragments can be separated and analyzed using gel electrophoresis. This process allows scientists to compare genomes of different organisms, separate genes, and create DNA “fingerprints”4) Sequencing DNA – this process allows scientists to determine the sequence of N-bases in DNA.5) Recombinant DNA – scientists can cut DNA from two sources with the same restriction enzyme and combine them. This is used in genetic engineering. This process has been used to create human proteins used to treat disease, create pest-resistant crops, and for many other purposes.6) Copying DNA – polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed that makes many copies of a small amount of DNA. See Fig 13-8 p325.
28EvolutionCharles Darwin – proposed that organisms (species or populations) change over timeOccurs by Natural Selection – “survival of the fittest”Lines of evidence1) Fossils (geologic time)2) Homologous Structures –same basic structure formed fromsame embryonic tissue3) Analogous Structures – samebasic functions due to sameenvironmental pressures4) Vestigial Structures – structuresthat have lost function ex) appendix5) Embryology – embryos of variousspecies appear identical6) Biochemistry – DNA and protein amino acid sequence comparisonsAdaptive radiation – an ancestralspecies radiates or diverges into manyspecies. Ex) Galapagos FinchesOrigin Ideas** SEE spontaneous generation handout to refresh**_______________ experiment simulated Earth’s early environment and created organic compounds like amino acid_______________ theory – eukaryoticcells formed when prokaryotic cells beganto live together permanentlyHomologousVestigial
29ClassificationCarolus Linnaeus – developed 7 categories of classificationAlso developed binomial nomenclature – naming using the genus and species names to refer to an organismClassification tools include dichotomous keys – a series of paired statements that lead to the name of an organism1a) Object has no sides Go to 21b) Object has sides Go to 32a) Object is oblong oval2b) Object is symmetrical circle3a) Object has 3 sides triangle3b) Object has 4 sides Go to 44a) Object has 4 equal sides square4b) Object doesn’t have 4 equal sides . . rectangle
30Kingdoms Compare viruses and bacteria: How are organism placed into their kingdoms?1) Cell type, complex or simple2) Their ability to make food3) The number of cells in their bodyFive Kingdom SystemMonera – all prokaryotic includes the bacteriaProtista – most are unicellular, eukaryotic, and aquaticFungi – all eukaryotic heterotrophs that act as decomposersPlantae – all eukaryotic autotrophsAnimalia – all eukaryotic heterotrophs that must eat other organisms for foodIn Six Kingdom system the Kingdom Monera has been divided into the Archaebacteria and the EubacteriaArchaebacteria – are extremists that live in hot, acidic, saline, or other harsh environmentsEubacteria are “true” bacteria that come in 3 shapes1) round (coccus)2) rod (bacillus)3) spiral (spirillus)Compare viruses and bacteria:
31Plants Compare angiosperm and gymnosperm below: Plant cell structure – cell walls, large vacuole, chloroplastsPhotosynthesisClassification – 4 groups1) Nonvascular – no true roots/stems/leaves – ex) mosses (Bryophytes)2) Seedless vascular plants – Ferns3) Vascular with seeds in cones – Gymnosperms (pines, fir, spruce)4) Vascular with seeds in fruits – Angiosperms – flowering plantsTypes of Vascular TissueA) Xylem – transports water from roots to leavesB) Phloem – transports sugars from leaves to rootsReproductive Life Cycle – called Alternation of GenerationsLabel a flower: Highlight female parts PINK and male parts BLUETropisms – growth responses to stimuli – often controlled by hormones like auxins and gibberellinsCompare angiosperm and gymnosperm below:
32Animals Modes of reproduction Animal cell structure – no cell wall, small vacuoles, no plastids, centriolesClassification – 2 main groupsVertebrates InvertebratesPhylum Chordata 9 Phyla3 classes of fish Arthropods – insects (6 legs)Amphibians (exoskeleton) - arachnids (8 legs)Reptiles crustaceansAves (birds) Mollusks – have shell created byMammals structure called mantelHuman Anatomy – Look through the chapters in your book regarding anatomy.* Neurons* Heart* KidneysAnimal Behavior – responses that allow an organism to respond to stimuli1) Innate Behavior – instincts, inherited, inborn behaviorsex) circadian rhythms – daily patterns of activity – including feeding behaviors - nocturnalex) annual rhythms – yearly patterns of activity – including courtship, estivation, hibernation, migration2) Learned Behavior – based on experienceex) imprinting – recognition of parentsex) Trial and error learningex) Conditioning (Pavlov’s dog) – learning by association3) Social Behavior – division of labor as in a termite or ant colony
34Biologists Robert Hooke –___________________________________________ Anton van Leeuwenhoek -__________________________________James Watson and Francis Crick – ___________________________Carolus Linnaeus – _________________________________________Rachel Carson – wrote “Silent Spring” bringing to public attention the dangers of pesticides particularly DDT – this toxin bioaccumulates in the bodies of top consumersLouis Pasteur – ____________________________________________Redi- Spontaneous generationSpallanzani- Disproved spontaneous generationMalthus- Populations
35Lyell- ___________________________________ Lamarck- _______________________________Gregor Mendel – _________________________Law of Segregation ______________Law of Independent Assortment_____________Charles Darwin – _________________________