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Modern Biology Term 1/3 Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Biology Term 1/3 Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Biology Term 1/3 Review

2 Chapter 1 Characteristics of life Scientific Method
Hypothesis vs. Theory Microscope techniques

3 Biology Characteristics of Life Organization Cells Response to Stimuli
Homeostasis Metabolism Growth and Development Reproduction Change Through Time Biology The study of life

4 Organization and Cells

5 Homeostasis & Metabolism
The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. The sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.

6 Steps of the Scientific Method
Observation: the act of perceiving a natural occurrence Forming a Hypothesis A statement that explains observations and data and can be tested Test Hypothesis Experimenting -Control group vs Experimental group Independent variable vs dependent variable Record and Study Data Write a conclusion Hypothesis vs theory Designing an Experiment: control group: provides a normal standard against which to compare the results of the experimental group experimental group: identical to the control group except for one factor, the independent variable independent variable: manipulated variable dependent variable: responding variable; it is affected by the independent variable

7 Chapter 4 The Discovery of Cells Organelles of a cell
Two basic types of cells – Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Relationships between size, shape, function, etc Distinguish between plant and animal cells Makeup of a multicellular organism – cells – tissues – organs – organ systems - organism

8 The History of Cell 1665 Created the first microscope
Robert Hooke Anton von Leeuwenhoek 1665 Created the first microscope Studied cork and saw “little boxes” 1673 Dutch trader, considered to be the father on microbiology Made better lens

9 Comparing Cells: Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes



12 Comparing Cells: Plant to Animal Organelles unique to each
PLANTS ANIMALS plastids like chloroplasts centrioles cell wall central vacuole


14 Chapter 5 Passive and active transport Diffusion and Osmosis
Hypo-, hyper-, and iso- tonic solutions Endocytosis vs Exocytosis

15 “Passive Transport” Crossing cell membrane using NO energy. EXAMPLES
Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion through ion channels

16 Diffusion

17 Osmosis


19 Active Transport Uses energy; against concentration gradient

20 Endocytosis

21 Exocytosis

22 Chapter 6 The chemical equation
The role of chlorophyll & accessory pigments The Light Reaction – roles of reactants and products The Dark Reaction – roles of reactants and products * The relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration*

23 Gets energy indirectly
Obtaining Energy Gets energy indirectly Gets energy directly AUTOTROPHS HETEROTROPHS Heterotrophs Get energy indirectly from food Autotrophs Organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds Photosynthesis

24 Visible Spectrum Pigments: compounds that absorb light. This subtracts them from the visible spectrum Light can be reflected, transmitted or absorbed by the object ROYGBIV

25 Visible Spectrum Chlorophyll is a pigment
Reflects green Absorbs blue and red Carotenoids are accessory pigments Absorb green Enable plants to capture more energy



28 Chapter 7 The chemical equation The major events of glycolysis
Compare the types of fermentation Pathways of aerobic respiration Aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration



31 Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation
The process which cells release energy (from food molecules) by producing ATP without oxygen Anaerobic Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation

32 Chapter 8 Structure and types of chromosomes Haploid and diploid cells
Describe the events of the cell cycle Summarize the phases of mitosis and meiosis Compare mitosis with meiosis Asexual and sexual reproduction – results, advantages, etc

33 Chromosomes All the others chromosomes in an organism.
Autosomes Sex Chromosomes All the others chromosomes in an organism. 44 of the 46 chromosomes in humans determine sex of offspring Humans are either X or Y. In humans, XX = female, XY = male. 2 of the 46 chromosomes in humans

Diploid: cells with two sets of chromosomes. All cells, except sex cells, are diploid or 2n. Haploid: cells with one set of chromosomes. Only sex cells (eggs and sperm), are haploid or 1n. Egg + sperm = zygote; n + n = 2n.

35 Cell Cycle



38 Sexual Reproduction The production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg. Offspring are genetically different from parents. Enables species to adapt.

39 Karyotype

40 Cell Division in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes reproduce using a process called Binary Fission

41 Chapter 10 Structure and function of DNA DNA replication
Types of RNA and their functions Transcription Genetic code—codon and anticodon Translation—protein synthesis

42 The DNA Song We love DNA, made of nucleotides!
Sugar, phosphate, and a base bonded on one side. Adenine and Thymine make a lovely pair! Cytosine without Guanine would feel very bare! Oh, oh, DNA, molecule of genes!! Deoxyribonucleic acid, here we come college deans!

43 RNA vs. DNA So why the big diff? RNA DNA
Single-stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. Contains ribose Complementary nucleotide to adenine is uracil Double-stranded helix Contains deoxyribose Complementary nucleotide to adenine is thymine So why the big diff? Chapter 12: Day Three

44 Summary: Protein Synthesis
DNA RNA translation transcription

45 Genetics Chapters 9 and 12

46 Introduction to Genetics
At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs by means of discrete traits, called “genes”. This property was first observed by Gregor Mendel Chapter 12: Day One

47 rr = homozygous white RR = homozygous red Rr = heterozygous red red
Genotype- the letter combinations showing possible alleles Identical alleles are homozygous Opposite alleles are heterozygous Phenotype is the form of the trait that shows up in what the organism looks like rr = homozygous white RR = homozygous red Rr = heterozygous red red or white

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