2 Chapter 1 Characteristics of life Scientific Method Hypothesis vs. TheoryMicroscope techniques
3 Biology Characteristics of Life Organization Cells Response to Stimuli HomeostasisMetabolismGrowth and DevelopmentReproductionChange Through TimeBiologyThe study of life
4 Organization and Cells ORGANELLEBIOLOGICAL MOLECULEATOMCELLTISSUEORGAN
5 Homeostasis & Metabolism The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.The sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.
6 Steps of the Scientific Method Observation: the act of perceiving a natural occurrenceForming a HypothesisA statement that explains observations and data and can be testedTest HypothesisExperimenting -Control group vs Experimental groupIndependent variable vs dependent variableRecord and Study DataWrite a conclusionHypothesis vs theoryDesigning an Experiment:control group: provides a normal standard against which to compare the results of the experimental groupexperimental group: identical to the control group except for one factor, the independent variableindependent variable: manipulated variabledependent variable: responding variable; it is affected by the independent variable
7 Chapter 4 The Discovery of Cells Organelles of a cell Two basic types of cells – Prokaryotic vs EukaryoticRelationships between size, shape, function, etcDistinguish between plant and animal cellsMakeup of a multicellular organism – cells – tissues – organs – organ systems - organism
8 The History of Cell 1665 Created the first microscope Robert HookeAnton von Leeuwenhoek1665Created the first microscopeStudied cork and saw “little boxes”1673Dutch trader, considered to be the father on microbiologyMade better lens
22 Chapter 6 The chemical equation The role of chlorophyll & accessory pigmentsThe Light Reaction – roles of reactants and productsThe Dark Reaction – roles of reactants and products* The relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration*
23 Gets energy indirectly Obtaining EnergyGets energy indirectlyGets energy directlyAUTOTROPHSHETEROTROPHSHeterotrophsGet energy indirectly from foodAutotrophsOrganisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compoundsPhotosynthesis
24 Visible SpectrumPigments: compounds that absorb light. This subtracts them from the visible spectrumLight can be reflected, transmitted or absorbed by the objectROYGBIV
25 Visible Spectrum Chlorophyll is a pigment Reflects greenAbsorbs blue and redCarotenoids are accessory pigmentsAbsorb greenEnable plants to capture more energy
31 Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation The process which cells release energy (from food molecules) by producing ATP without oxygenAnaerobicLactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic Fermentation
32 Chapter 8 Structure and types of chromosomes Haploid and diploid cells Describe the events of the cell cycleSummarize the phases of mitosis and meiosisCompare mitosis with meiosisAsexual and sexual reproduction – results, advantages, etc
33 Chromosomes All the others chromosomes in an organism. AutosomesSex ChromosomesAll the others chromosomes in an organism.44 of the 46 chromosomes in humansdetermine sex of offspringHumans are either X or Y.In humans, XX = female, XY = male.2 of the 46 chromosomes in humans
34 DIPLOID AND HAPLOID CELLS Diploid: cells with two sets of chromosomes. All cells, except sex cells, are diploid or 2n.Haploid: cells with one set of chromosomes. Only sex cells (eggs and sperm), are haploid or 1n.Egg + sperm = zygote; n + n = 2n.
40 Cell Division in Prokaryotes Prokaryotes reproduce using a process called Binary Fission
41 Chapter 10 Structure and function of DNA DNA replication Types of RNA and their functionsTranscriptionGenetic code—codon and anticodonTranslation—protein synthesis
42 The DNA Song We love DNA, made of nucleotides! Sugar, phosphate, and a base bonded on one side.Adenine and Thymine make a lovely pair!Cytosine without Guanine would feel very bare!Oh, oh, DNA, molecule of genes!!Deoxyribonucleic acid, here we come college deans!
43 RNA vs. DNA So why the big diff? RNA DNA Single-stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides.Contains riboseComplementary nucleotide to adenine is uracilDouble-stranded helixContains deoxyriboseComplementary nucleotide to adenine is thymineSo why the big diff?Chapter 12: Day Three
44 Summary: Protein Synthesis DNARNAtranslationtranscription
46 Introduction to Genetics At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs by means of discrete traits, called “genes”.This property was first observed byGregor MendelChapter 12: Day One
47 rr = homozygous white RR = homozygous red Rr = heterozygous red red Genotype- the letter combinations showing possible allelesIdentical alleles are homozygousOpposite alleles are heterozygousPhenotype is the form of the trait that shows up in what the organism looks likerr = homozygous whiteRR = homozygous redRr = heterozygous redredorwhite