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Mendel, Mendel extended, DNA/RNA and biotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "Mendel, Mendel extended, DNA/RNA and biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mendel, Mendel extended, DNA/RNA and biotechnology

2  Law of Segregation- member of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed. A gamete will receive one allele or the other. (anaphase I)  Law of Independent Assortment- pairs of alleles line up independently of one another during gamete formation (metaphase I)

3  Mutations  Crossing over in prophase I  Independent assortment in metaphase I  Sexual recombination  Variations in DNA can cause variations in organisms phenotype. This can result in the evolution of the species as traits are selected for and against

4  Homozygous dominant- GG  Heterozygous- Gg  Homozygous recessive- gg  Genotype- GG, Gg, gg  Phenotype- green, yellow  Allele- alternate forms of a gene  Punnett square- used to determine probability of a trait being passed to offspring  P= parents, F 1 = 1 st generation of kids,  F 2 = 2 nd generation of kids  Meiosis→Fertilization→Cleavage→Differentiation


6  Two plants are crossed, the first is heterozygous for height and has yellow seeds. The second is heterozygous for height and seed color. (Tall dominant over short, Green dominant over yellow)  Genotype of parents Ttgg X TtGg  Create two monohybrid cross (TtX Tt and ggXGg)  Multiply the fraction possibilities to get your answer

7  A. 0  B. 6  C. 9  D. 12  Answer C

8  A. Both parent plants are heterozygous for flower color.  B. Both parent plants were homozygous for purple flowers.  C. One plant had white flowers and the other was heterozygous.  D. One parent was heterozygous for flower color and the other was homozygous with purple flowers.  Answer A

9  Incomplete dominance- neither trait is dominant (red and white flowers make pink)  Codominance -(both are dominant) blood type  Sex linked- trait is found on the X chromsome (males more likely to have these because they only have one X chromsome)  Polygenic- several genes code for a trait (height)  Multiple Alleles- 3 or more possible alleles for a trait (blood type/A,B,O)  Barr body- one X chromsome is shut down in each female diploid cell


11  Autosomal- found on chromosomes #1-22, individuals need 2 recessive alleles to have disease ◦ Huntington’s unusual because caused by dominant allele  Sex linked- found on X chromosomes and males are more likely to have disease because they only have one X chromosome  Nondisjunction- chromosomes don’t separate properly during Anaphase resulting in an extra chromsome in gamete (down syndrome)

12 Autosomes (#1-22) sex chromosomes #23


14  The allele for brown eyes is dominant to blue eyes. Which best explains how two brown eyed parents have a blue eyed child?  A. Each parent is carrying a recessive allele for the trait.  B. Eye color is a sex linked trait and male children could have only the allele for blue eyes.  C. Mutations after fertilization could alter gene sequences and change alleles.  D. One parent must have had only blue eyed parents.  Answer A

15  Griffith proved transformation- bacteria pick of DNA from environment (mice experiment)


17  Composed of nucleotides ◦ 5-C sugar (deoxyribose) ◦ phosphate group ◦ nitrogenous base purines = adenine and guanine pyrimidines = cytosine and thymine phosphate group deoxyribose (sugar) nitrogen-containing base

18  Adenine- Thymine (uracil if RNA)  Cytosine- Guanine

19  DNA Replication- process by which DNA makes a copy of itself in order to produce two identical cells  1. DNA is uncoiled with enzymes  2. DNA polymerase- enzyme which then bonds the complementary nucleotides together  3. Each new DNA molecule has one original and one new strand (semiconservative model)

20 DNA polymerase new strand nucleotide

21  All organisms use the same 4 bases (ATCG)  It is the difference in order and arrangement which results in the variety of life on earth  This demonstrates an evolutionary relationship between organisms  The more shared DNA in the same order, the more closely related two species are

22  RNA- nucleic acid which acts as a messenger between DNA and the ribosomes for protein synthesis  Central Dogma- information flows from DNA to RNA

23  Structure- single stranded  5-Carbon sugar (ribose)  phosphate group  nitrogenous base ◦ purines- adenine and guanine ◦ pyrimidines- cytosine and uracil

24  Transcription- process by which information is transferred from DNA to RNA in sets of three nucleotides (codon) ◦ Introns are cut out and stay in nucleus, exons leave ◦ messenger RNA (mRNA)- copies and carries information out of nucleus to ribosome  Translation- decoding of mRNA in order to form proteins (assisted by transfer RNA- tRNA and ribosomal RNA - rRNA) ◦ tRNA reads in sets of 3 called the anticodon ◦ Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to make protein


26  A. Only tRNA bends into specific shapes to make amino acids.  B. Only mRNA can repair specific mistakes in DNA code.  C. The tRNA is used on the ribosomes and the mRNA is used in the nucleus.  D. The mRNA brings information to the nucleus for the tRNA to use.  Answer A

27  Random changes to DNA  Point mutation- one nucleotide is substituted  Frameshift mutation- insertion or deletion of a base resulting in a shift as to how the codon is read  Mutagens- agents which can change the DNA (UV light, industrial chemicals etc.)


29  A. 5  B. 4  C. 2  D. 3  Answer D

30  A. Cells having the new DNA version will look or operate differently from cells with the original DNA.  Only the sections of DNA without mistakes will be used in the future so the DNA strand will shorten.  C. The DNA will be exactly like the original since only the original strand of DNA is used as a template.  D. When the new strand is used as a template the strand built from it will differ from the original DNA.  Answer D

31  Cut desired gene and plasmid of bacteria with same restriction enzyme  Combine desired gene and plasmid together  Insert recombinant plasmid into a bacteria and allow to reproduce  Evidence that it worked- bacteria shows trait (glows, produces chemical etc)


33 Gel Electrophoresis DNA moves towards positive side The more bands that line up, the more closely related

34  Transgenic organisms- contain DNA from a different species  Production of medicine like insulin, make plants resistant to disease, pests, etc…, make livestock produce more meat, milk…, test out treatments for human diseases on other organisms

35  A. Nucleic acids are used as the building blocks of proteins, while enzymes are used as the building blocks of phospholipids.  B. Nucleic acids contain the genetic code for protein synthesis, while enzymes catalyze chemical reactions  C. Nucleic acids inhibit biochemical reactions, while enzymes catalyze reactions  D. Nucleic acids transmit signals that begin biological processes, enzymes convert carbohydrates into lipids and proteins.  Answer C

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