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2 nd Nine Weeks Study Guide Answers Honors Biology 2009
Standard 3- Photosynthesis 1. What is photosynthesis? A process used by autotrophs to produce their own food using the sun’s energy 2. What is cellular respiration? A process in which mitochondria break down food molecules/glucose into ATP 3. In photosynthesis, what kind of energy is light energy converted into? Chemical energy (glucose) 4. What food molecule is used as an energy source? glucose
5. What kind of organic compound is this food molecule? A carbohydrate 6. What is the main energy trapping molecule in plants? HINT: It gives chloroplast its color. Chlorophyll 7. Energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll located in what part of the chloroplast? Thylakoid membranes
8. What is chlorophyll? A green pigment that traps light energy 9. What kind of organisms use it to make food: heterotrophs or autotrophs? Autotrophs 10. What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 –What are the reactants of photosynthesis? 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight –What are the products? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
11. What is the equation for cellular respiration? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 = 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP –What are the products of respiration? 6H 2 O, 6CO 2, ATP –What are the reactants of respiration? C 6 H 12 O 6, O 2 12. What is the relationship between Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis? They are opposites. The products of one are the reactants of the other. 13. If oxygen is present, how many ATP can be made from 1 glucose molecule? 36
14. What are the components of a nucleotide? Sugar, Phosphate & a Base 15. What is the function of ribosomes and what are they made of? rRNA & Protein, Function- Protein Synthesis 16. What is the base-pair rule in DNA? RNA? DNA= A-T, C-G RNA= A-U, C-G Standard 8
17. Give 3 examples of Mutagens. Ultraviolent rays, Chemicals, x-rays 18. Where does transcription & translation take place? Transcription- Nucleus, Translation- cytoplasm (ribosome) 19. Where does mRNA have to take its strand for protein synthesis to occur? To the ribosome in the cytoplasm
20. What happens during DNA replication? (name the enzymes used & tell what their used for) Helicase opens the helix, Polymerase adds the bases, and Ligase stitches it up. 21. Which process forms mRNA? Transcription 22. Which sugar is in DNA? RNA? DNA- Deoxyribose, RNA- Ribose 23. List the three types of RNA and their function. mRNA- makes copies of DNA, rRNA- synthesize mRNA, tRNA- translate amino acid sequence.
24. Who are the fathers of DNA? What did they discover? Watson & Crick- Double helix 25. What is the shape of DNA? Double helix 26. What is the monomer of DNA & RNA? (What are they made of?) nucleotides 27. What brings the amino acids to the mRNA strand? tRNA
28. What is a combination of 3 bases called? Codon 29. What is the primary function of DNA? Storage of genetic material 30. List 3 differences between DNA & RNA. Shape- DNA is double helix and RNA is a single strand. Sugar- DNA has deoxyribose and RNA has ribose. Base- RNA doesn’t have thymine, it has uracil.
31. What is the definition of Transcription of Translation? Transcription is making a copy of DNA in RNA form. Translation is translating the mRNA into amino acids and creating proteins. 32. What signals for the end of the protein strand? Stop codon or stop signal. 33.What is the start codon? AUG
34. What is the scientific study of heredity? Genetics 35. Who is the father of Genetics? Gregor Mendel 36. What is the genetic trait that appears every genotype? Dominant 37. If an individual has two of the same alleles for a trait, they are _____________. What’s another name for this? Homozygous, Purebred
38. If an individual has two different alleles for a trait, they are _____________. What’s another name for this? Heterozygous, Hybrid 39. Tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t) in pea plants. What is the genotype of a pea plant that is heterozygous for tallness? Tt 40. What are Mendel’s 4 laws? Rule of Unit Factors Law of Dominance Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment
41. What are the three reasons we need mitosis? Growth, repair, replacement 42. List 3 differences between Mitosis & Meiosis. –Mitosis produces 2 diploid cells, Meiosis produces 4 Haploid cells. –Mitosis is body cells, Meiosis is Sex cells. –Mitosis undergoes one division, Meiosis includes two divisions.
43. Below are the phases of the Cell cycle. Label each phase, and tell what happens in each one. A B C D E A. Telophase- two new nuclei B. Metaphase- Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. C. Interphase- No Chromosomes are seen D. Anaphase- Chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. E. Prophase- Chromosomes are becoming visible.
44. During which phase of Meiosis does crossing over occur? -Prophase I 45. Define diploid and haploid. Give one example of each type of cell. Diploid: 2 sets of chromosomes in a cell; 2n Haploid: 1 set of chromosomes in a cell; 1n D: body cells (somatic) H: gametes (sex cells) 46. What is a gamete? What is the male gamete? The female gamete? Gametes: sex cells M=sperm F=egg
47. A camel has 70 chromosomes in his body cells. A. How many pairs of homologous chromosomes will be in his diploid cells? 35 B. How many chromosomes will be in his sex cells? 35 C. How many chromosomes will be in one of his skin cells? 70 48.