Presentation on theme: "Nationalism in Europe CHAPTER 25 Section 1: The Unification of Italy"— Presentation transcript:
1Nationalism in Europe CHAPTER 25 Section 1: The Unification of Italy 4/6/2017CHAPTER 25Nationalism in EuropeSection 1: The Unification of ItalySection 2: The Unification of GermanySection 3: Opposition to BismarckSection 4: Reform and Revolution in RussiaSection 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary
2The Unification of Italy Section 1:The Unification of ItalyObjectives:Describe the events that led to nationalistic movements for unification in Italy.Identify the important leaders in the fight for the unification of Italy.Explain the problems Italy faced after unification.
3Liberals and Nationalists in Italy Section 1:The Unification of ItalyLiberals and Nationalists in ItalyRisorgimento – goals were liberation and unificationYoung Italy movement – wanted a republic to rule ItalyRevolts in several Italian states failed
4Sardinia, France, and Austria Section 1:The Unification of ItalySardinia, France, and AustriaCavour’s Sardinia – Cavour believed in separation of church and stateNapoléon III – French emperor, wanted France to dominate Italian statesWar with Austria – Cavour and Napoléon conspired against Austria, but neither won dominance
5Garibaldi and the Thousand Section 1:The Unification of ItalyGaribaldi and the ThousandTwo Sicilies – Garibaldi and his army invaded and captured Sicily and Naples, stopped by Cavour
6Unification and its Problems Section 1:The Unification of ItalyUnification and its ProblemsCultural traditionsTensions between industrialized north and agricultural south
7The Unification of Germany Section 2:The Unification of GermanyObjectives:Explain how Prussia replaced Austria as the leading German state in Europe.Identify the ways in which German unification differed from Italian unification.Describe the changes in German government that occurred as a result of unification.
8The Unification of Germany Section 2:The Unification of GermanyPrussia as LeaderLarge armyEfficient governmentStrong economyGerman nationalism
9The Unification of Germany Section 2:The Unification of GermanyThe ZollvereinAdopted uniform weights, measures, and currency
10Bismarck and Prussian Strength Section 2:The Unification of GermanyBismarck and Prussian StrengthCollected taxes without approvalIgnored constitution
11The Unification of Germany Section 2:The Unification of GermanyWars of UnificationThe Danish War – Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark over new Danish constitutionThe Seven Weeks’ War – ended with Treaty of PragueThe Franco-Prussian War – Bismarck provoked war with the French and defeated them
12Formation of the German Empire Section 2:The Unification of GermanyFormation of the German EmpireIncluded all German states except AustriaBundesrat and Reichstag – made up legislative branch of new governmentPrussian king ruled Germany and had most representatives in legislature
13Opposition to Bismarck Section 3:Opposition to BismarckObjectives:Explain the problems Bismarck faced as chancellor of the German Empire.Describe how Germany became industrialized under Bismarck’s leadership.Identify the factors that led to the decline of Bismarck’s power as chancellor.
14Problems for the Empire Section 3:Opposition to BismarckProblems for the EmpirePolitical groups opposed Bismarck’s policiesTension between Prussia and other German statesKulturkampf – anti-Catholic program, ended so Bismarck could gain support of Centre Party
15Industrial Development under Bismarck Section 3:Opposition to BismarckIndustrial Development under BismarckStandardized money and banking lawsCentralized postal and telegraph servicesEncouraged cartels
16Opposition to Bismarck Section 3:Opposition to BismarckSocialism in GermanySocial Democratic Party – most were urban workers; twelve members of Reichstag; opposed by Bundesrat
17Bismarck’s Antisocialist Campaign Section 3:Opposition to BismarckBismarck’s Antisocialist CampaignGovernment-directed social reforms – did not end socialism, but reduced workers’ grievances
18The Resignation of Bismarck Section 3:Opposition to BismarckThe Resignation of BismarckWilliam II – conservative, absolute authority of monarch; accepted Bismarck’s resignation
19Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaObjectives:Explain the geographical and cultural factors that made Russia different from the rest of Europe.Describe the characteristics of Russian domestic and foreign policies.Identify the reform movements that occurred in Russia and their results.
20Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaThe Russian EmpireUndeveloped resourcesLack of portsDiversity of population
21Russian Domestic and Foreign Policies Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaRussian Domestic and Foreign PoliciesCzar had absolute power“Russification” – forced non-Russian citizens to adopt Russian customsPan-SlavismSouthward expansion led to defeat in the Crimean War
22Alexander II and Reforms Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaAlexander II and ReformsEmancipation for the serfs – moved to cities and became cheap sources of laborAlexander II’s other reforms – provincial and county-level councils, civil and criminal courts, limited power of secret police, expanded education, reorganized military
23Radicals and Government Reaction Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaRadicals and Government ReactionTerrorist attacks – bombings and assassinations by political groupsTime of repression – censorship, control of church and education, spies and informers, imprisonment and exile
24Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 4:Reform and Revolution in RussiaThe Revolution of 1905“Bloody Sunday” – czar’s troops shot unarmed strikers; mutinies in army and navyOctober Manifesto – promised individual liberties, but autocracy continuedFailed to overthrow czar
25Unrest in Austria-Hungary Section 5:Unrest in Austria-HungarySection 5: Objectives:Explain what led to the formation of the Dual Monarchy and what problems it faced.Describe how the decline of the Ottoman Empire affected European politics.Discuss how ethnic clashes in southern Europe set the stage for a showdown among the major powers.
26Results of the Uprisings Section 5:Unrest in Austria-HungaryResults of the UprisingsMetternich resigned after revoltsMagyars dominated Hungary
27Formation of the Dual Monarchy Section 5:Unrest in Austria-HungaryFormation of the Dual MonarchyAustria-Hungary – had ministries for war, finance, and foreign affairs; each had own parliament
28The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans Section 5:Unrest in Austria-HungaryThe Ottoman Empire and the BalkansMilitary defeatsDiverse peoples in Balkans desired and won self-ruleRussia supported Balkan independenceGreat Britain supported suppression of self-rule
29The Congress of Berlin and the Balkan Wars Section 5:Unrest in Austria-HungaryThe Congress of Berlin and the Balkan WarsTreaty of Stefano – granted independence to several Balkan territoriesBalkan League – Balkan nations who united to declare war on Ottoman Empire; Balkans won but fought a second war over division of lands