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HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Nationalism in Europe Section 1:The Unification of Italy Section 2:The Unification.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Nationalism in Europe Section 1:The Unification of Italy Section 2:The Unification."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Nationalism in Europe Section 1:The Unification of Italy Section 2:The Unification of Germany Section 3:Opposition to Bismarck Section 4:Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 5:Unrest in Austria-Hungary CHAPTER 25

2 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives: Describe the events that led to nationalistic movements for unification in Italy. Describe the events that led to nationalistic movements for unification in Italy. Identify the important leaders in the fight for the unification of Italy. Identify the important leaders in the fight for the unification of Italy. Explain the problems Italy faced after unification. Explain the problems Italy faced after unification. Section 1: The Unification of Italy

3 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Liberals and Nationalists in Italy Risorgimento – goals were liberation and unification Risorgimento – goals were liberation and unification Young Italy movement – wanted a republic to rule Italy Young Italy movement – wanted a republic to rule Italy Revolts in several Italian states failed Revolts in several Italian states failed Section 1: The Unification of Italy

4 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Sardinia, France, and Austria Cavour’s Sardinia – Cavour believed in separation of church and state Cavour’s Sardinia – Cavour believed in separation of church and state Napoléon III – French emperor, wanted France to dominate Italian states Napoléon III – French emperor, wanted France to dominate Italian states War with Austria – Cavour and Napoléon conspired against Austria, but neither won dominance War with Austria – Cavour and Napoléon conspired against Austria, but neither won dominance Section 1: The Unification of Italy

5 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Garibaldi and the Thousand Two Sicilies – Garibaldi and his army invaded and captured Sicily and Naples, stopped by Cavour Two Sicilies – Garibaldi and his army invaded and captured Sicily and Naples, stopped by Cavour Section 1: The Unification of Italy

6 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Unification and its Problems Cultural traditions Cultural traditions Tensions between industrialized north and agricultural south Tensions between industrialized north and agricultural south Section 1: The Unification of Italy

7 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Objectives: Explain how Prussia replaced Austria as the leading German state in Europe. Explain how Prussia replaced Austria as the leading German state in Europe. Identify the ways in which German unification differed from Italian unification. Identify the ways in which German unification differed from Italian unification. Describe the changes in German government that occurred as a result of unification. Describe the changes in German government that occurred as a result of unification. Section 2: The Unification of Germany

8 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Prussia as Leader Large army Large army Efficient government Efficient government Strong economy Strong economy German nationalism German nationalism Section 2: The Unification of Germany

9 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 The Zollverein Adopted uniform weights, measures, and currency Adopted uniform weights, measures, and currency Section 2: The Unification of Germany

10 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Bismarck and Prussian Strength Collected taxes without approval Collected taxes without approval Ignored constitution Ignored constitution Section 2: The Unification of Germany

11 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Wars of Unification The Danish War – Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark over new Danish constitution The Danish War – Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark over new Danish constitution The Seven Weeks’ War – ended with Treaty of Prague The Seven Weeks’ War – ended with Treaty of Prague The Franco-Prussian War – Bismarck provoked war with the French and defeated them The Franco-Prussian War – Bismarck provoked war with the French and defeated them Section 2: The Unification of Germany

12 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Formation of the German Empire Included all German states except Austria Included all German states except Austria Bundesrat and Reichstag – made up legislative branch of new government Bundesrat and Reichstag – made up legislative branch of new government Prussian king ruled Germany and had most representatives in legislature Prussian king ruled Germany and had most representatives in legislature Section 2: The Unification of Germany

13 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Objectives: Explain the problems Bismarck faced as chancellor of the German Empire. Explain the problems Bismarck faced as chancellor of the German Empire. Describe how Germany became industrialized under Bismarck’s leadership. Describe how Germany became industrialized under Bismarck’s leadership. Identify the factors that led to the decline of Bismarck’s power as chancellor. Identify the factors that led to the decline of Bismarck’s power as chancellor. Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

14 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Problems for the Empire Political groups opposed Bismarck’s policies Political groups opposed Bismarck’s policies Tension between Prussia and other German states Tension between Prussia and other German states Kulturkampf – anti-Catholic program, ended so Bismarck could gain support of Centre Party Kulturkampf – anti-Catholic program, ended so Bismarck could gain support of Centre Party Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

15 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Industrial Development under Bismarck Standardized money and banking laws Standardized money and banking laws Centralized postal and telegraph services Centralized postal and telegraph services Encouraged cartels Encouraged cartels Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

16 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Socialism in Germany Social Democratic Party – most were urban workers; twelve members of Reichstag; opposed by Bundesrat Social Democratic Party – most were urban workers; twelve members of Reichstag; opposed by Bundesrat Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

17 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Bismarck’s Antisocialist Campaign Government-directed social reforms – did not end socialism, but reduced workers’ grievances Government-directed social reforms – did not end socialism, but reduced workers’ grievances Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

18 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 The Resignation of Bismarck William II – conservative, absolute authority of monarch; accepted Bismarck’s resignation William II – conservative, absolute authority of monarch; accepted Bismarck’s resignation Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck

19 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 Objectives: Explain the geographical and cultural factors that made Russia different from the rest of Europe. Explain the geographical and cultural factors that made Russia different from the rest of Europe. Describe the characteristics of Russian domestic and foreign policies. Describe the characteristics of Russian domestic and foreign policies. Identify the reform movements that occurred in Russia and their results. Identify the reform movements that occurred in Russia and their results. Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

20 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 The Russian Empire Undeveloped resources Undeveloped resources Lack of ports Lack of ports Diversity of population Diversity of population Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

21 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Russian Domestic and Foreign Policies Czar had absolute power Czar had absolute power “Russification” – forced non-Russian citizens to adopt Russian customs “Russification” – forced non-Russian citizens to adopt Russian customs Pan-Slavism Pan-Slavism Southward expansion led to defeat in the Crimean War Southward expansion led to defeat in the Crimean War Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

22 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 22 Alexander II and Reforms Emancipation for the serfs – moved to cities and became cheap sources of labor Emancipation for the serfs – moved to cities and became cheap sources of labor Alexander II’s other reforms – provincial and county-level councils, civil and criminal courts, limited power of secret police, expanded education, reorganized military Alexander II’s other reforms – provincial and county-level councils, civil and criminal courts, limited power of secret police, expanded education, reorganized military Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

23 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 23 Radicals and Government Reaction Terrorist attacks – bombings and assassinations by political groups Terrorist attacks – bombings and assassinations by political groups Time of repression – censorship, control of church and education, spies and informers, imprisonment and exile Time of repression – censorship, control of church and education, spies and informers, imprisonment and exile Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

24 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 24 The Revolution of 1905 “Bloody Sunday” – czar’s troops shot unarmed strikers; mutinies in army and navy “Bloody Sunday” – czar’s troops shot unarmed strikers; mutinies in army and navy October Manifesto – promised individual liberties, but autocracy continued October Manifesto – promised individual liberties, but autocracy continued Failed to overthrow czar Failed to overthrow czar Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia

25 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 25 Section 5: Objectives: Explain what led to the formation of the Dual Monarchy and what problems it faced. Explain what led to the formation of the Dual Monarchy and what problems it faced. Describe how the decline of the Ottoman Empire affected European politics. Describe how the decline of the Ottoman Empire affected European politics. Discuss how ethnic clashes in southern Europe set the stage for a showdown among the major powers. Discuss how ethnic clashes in southern Europe set the stage for a showdown among the major powers. Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary

26 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 26 Results of the Uprisings Metternich resigned after revolts Metternich resigned after revolts Magyars dominated Hungary Magyars dominated Hungary Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary

27 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 27 Formation of the Dual Monarchy Austria-Hungary – had ministries for war, finance, and foreign affairs; each had own parliament Austria-Hungary – had ministries for war, finance, and foreign affairs; each had own parliament Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary

28 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 28 The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans Military defeats Military defeats Diverse peoples in Balkans desired and won self-rule Diverse peoples in Balkans desired and won self-rule Russia supported Balkan independence Russia supported Balkan independence Great Britain supported suppression of self-rule Great Britain supported suppression of self-rule Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary

29 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 29 The Congress of Berlin and the Balkan Wars Treaty of Stefano – granted independence to several Balkan territories Treaty of Stefano – granted independence to several Balkan territories Balkan League – Balkan nations who united to declare war on Ottoman Empire; Balkans won but fought a second war over division of lands Balkan League – Balkan nations who united to declare war on Ottoman Empire; Balkans won but fought a second war over division of lands Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary


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