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Origins of American Government.  Section 2.1 Basic Concepts of Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government.  Section 2.1 Basic Concepts of Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of American Government

2  Section 2.1 Basic Concepts of Government

3   Ordered  Based on English style: still around; sheriff, justice of the peace, grand juries and counties  Limited  Gov. is restricted in what it can do, every individual has certain rights Gov. can’t take away  Representative  Gov. Should serve the will of the people Governments

4 Magna Carta The great charter. Runnymede 1215, England Barons dissatisfied with King John’s heavy taxes and battles Trial by Jury Due process Originally these were for upper class only, but over time became every English citizens rights

5 The petition of Right Magna Carta Respected/disrespected by English Rule for 400 years Charles the first wanted more $$ for taxes, Parliament wouldn’t give it until he signed No wrongful imprisonment Jury trial by peers No martial law in peace Effectively ended divine right

6 The English Bill of Rights, 1689 William and Mary of Orange offered the throne. Must agree to Bill of Rights No standing army in peacetime Right to fair trial Freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment

7  The 13 Colonies  Royal Colonies  Direct Control of the crown  1775 there were 8: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina and Georgia  Bi-cameral: there was approval for laws from a governor and the King  Proprietary Colonies  1775 there were 3: Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware  Land was “owned” by someone and governor was appointed by owner

8  The 13 Colonies  The charter colonies  Massachusetts bay colony, Connecticut and Rhode island  Governors were elected by white male property owners  Laws made by legislature in these colonies were not subject to governor veto

9  Section 2.2 The Coming of Independence

10 Events that led to the Revolution  1643: New England Confederation  1696: Penn offers Inter-colonial cooperation  1754: The Albany plan  1765: The Stamp Act Congress  1770, March 5: Boston Massacre  1772: Committees of Correspondence  1773, Dec. 12: Boston Tea party  1774, spring: The intolerable acts  1774, Sep. 5: First Continental Congress  1775, April 19: Battles of Lexington and Concord (Am. Rev.)  1775, May 10: Second Continental Congress  1776, June 7: Resolution of independence (Lee’s resolution)  1776, July 2: Agreed to Lee’s resolution  1776, July 4: Adopted Declaration of independence  1781, March 1: Articles of Confederation are ratified Britain became more involved in trying to govern the colonies in the 1760s. Delegates joined the first Continental Congress to plan opposition to British policy. The second Continental Congress proclaimed independence and served as the first US Gov. After the Declaration of Independence, most of the 13 States adopted written constitutions, which later influenced the US constitution

11  Section 2.3 The Critical Period

12   The second continental congress adopted the Articles of Confederation to establish a more lasting form of government  Under the Articles of confederation, each state had one vote in congress; no executive or judicial branches existed  Congress did not have the power to tax, regulate commerce, or make the states obey the Articles  The Articles weaknesses led to bickering among the states  The growing need for a stronger National Gov. led to plans for a Constitutional Convention Facts

13   The Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation during the Revolutionary War. The articles were written to give the colonies some sense of a unified government. Once the thirteen colonies became the thirteen states, however, each one began to act alone in its own best interest. A new governing document was needed in order for these new states to act together, to become a nation.  The Articles of Confederation became effective on March 1, 1781, after all thirteen states had ratified them. The Articles made the states and legislature supreme. There was no executive branch. Judicial functions were very limited.  The resulting government was weak. Efforts to make it stronger failed. A convention called in May 1787 to re-write the Articles decided to draft an entirely new Constitution. Articles of Confederation

14  Section 2.4 Creating the Constitution

15   The constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of the Confederation  The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan each offered an approach to organizing a new government  Delegates accepted compromises that led to agreement on the configuration of Congress and other issues Facts

16  The Framers  55 reps from 13 states went to Philadelphia for convention  famous and involved they were an impressive group  Elected George Washington President of the Convention  Decided to create an entirely new Gov. for the U.S. Constitutional Compromises Three-Fifths Compromise 3/5 of slaves counted for representation 3/5 of slaves counted for taxation Connecticut Compromise Bicameral Congress Equal represenati- on in senate Representat -ion by State population in house Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Congress forbidden to tax exports Congress forbidden to interfere with slave trade until 1808 Congress could regulate commerce

17  The “Plans” New Jersey Plan  Small state plan to get equal representation in the Gov.  Led to the Senate  New Jersey had the smallest amount of population, they knew that if the Virginia Plan succeeded that they would have no voice in government at all so they countered the plan with the New Jersey Plan that if there were equal amount of people from each state then no one state would rule the government. Virginia Plan  Large state plan to get representation based on population in the Gov.  Led to the House of Representatives  Virginia was a big state at the time, they knew if they had a government based on population, then they would have the biggest voice in government

18 John Locke John Locke FRS, widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Tabla Rasa No Government without the governed

19 Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. Came up with Legislative, Judicial and Executive Branches Wanted to reform Slavery

20 Jean- Jacques Rousseau The social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought

21 William Blackstone Sir William Blackstone KC SL was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England (an overview of how British Law works)

22  Section 5 Ratifying the Constitution

23  Comparison Federalists  The articles of Confederation are too weak  Only a stronger national Gov. can overcome the difficulties the Republic faces  Liberties that could be included in a bill of rights are covered in the state constitutions Anti-Federalists  The states would no longer have the power to print money  The national Gov. would be given too much power  There should be no bill of rights.

24 George Washington 1 st President of the U.S. New York was the last Key state to ratify the Constitution 11 of the 13 states were under “1 federal roof” April 6, 1789 Elected as president of the U.S.A New York was the first temporary capital


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