Presentation on theme: "Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov
Classical Conditioning This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.
Classical Conditioning Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.
Classical Conditioning After a while, the body begins to link together the neutral stimulus with the UCS. Acquisition
Classical Conditioning We know learning takes place when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. At this point the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).
Classical Conditioning TRICKY FACT: We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. This is called ACQUISITION. Acquisition does not last forever. The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.
Popular Classical Conditioning Examples Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office. See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR.
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE! TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE! UCS ~UCR~CS~CR You like to take showers in the locker room after working out. During one such shower, you hear someone flushing a nearby toilet. Suddenly boiling hot water rushes out of the shower head, causing serious discomfort. As you continue the shower, you hear another toilet flush and immediately jump out form under the shower head.
UCS ~UCR~CS~CR Your mother had prepared a tuna sandwich for lunch. Unfortunately the mayonnaise she used had been left out too long and was tainted. Not long after eating, you felt extremely nauseated and had to rush to the bathroom. Thereafter the mere mention of a tuna sandwich sent you scurrying to the bathroom with a hurting stomach.
UCS? UCR? CS? CR? You were happy when you heard your family's plan to go to a water show. Then you heard the weather report, which predicted temperatures exceeding 100 degrees. As you watched the water skiers performed taxing routines to the blaring organ music, you got more and more sweaty and uncomfortable. Eventually, you fainted from the heat. After the family outing you could never again hear organ music without feeling a little dizzy.
Timing Matters Delayed Conditioning: present CS, while CS is still there, present UCS. Trace Conditioning: present CS, short break, then present UCS. Simultaneous Conditioning: CS and UCS are presented at the same time. Backward Conditioning: UCS is presented, then CS is presented.
Spontaneous Recovery Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.
Generalization and Discrimination Generalization Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR. Discrimination Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.
Learned Taste Aversions When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. Even when food and sickness are hours apart. Food must be salient (noticeable.)
Garcia and Koelling Study Studied rats and how they make associations. Some associations seem to be adaptive. CSUCSLearned Response Loud NoiseShockFear Loud NoiseRadiation (nausea)Nothing Sweet WaterShockNothing Sweet WaterRadiation (nausea)Avoid Water
Operant Conditioning The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!
The Law of Effect Edward Thorndike Locked cats in a cage Behavior changes because of its consequences. Rewards strengthen behavior. If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus- Reward connection will weaken. Called the whole process instrumental learning.
B.F. Skinner The Mac Daddy of Operant Conditioning. Nurture guy through and through. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts. portal.com/academy/lesson/operant-conditioning.html portal.com/academy/lesson/operant-conditioning.html
Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant. Two types of NR Escape Learning Avoidance Learning (Getting kicked out of class versus cutting class)
Positive or Negative? Putting your seatbelt on. Studying for a test. Having a headache and taking an aspirin. Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class. Breaking out of jail. Getting a kiss for doing the dishes.
Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
How do we actually use Operant Conditioning? Sometimes, we use a process called shaping. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior. These small steps are called successive approximations. To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior. To get Barry to become a better student, you need to do more than give him a reward when he gets good grades. You have to give him mrewards when he studies for ten minutes, or for when he completes his homework. Small steps to get to the desired behavior.
Chaining Behaviors Subjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward.
Same Terminology as Classical Conditioning Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination If I wanted to reinforce my son’s dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….
Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Things that are in themselves rewarding. Secondary Reinforcer Things we have learned to value. Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer (because it can be traded for just about anything)
Token Economy Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers) Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.
Reinforcement Schedules How often do you give the reinforcer? Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.
Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Continuous Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. Acquisition comes really fast. But so does extinction. Partial Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. Acquisition comes more slowly. But is more resistant to extinction. FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules.
Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio How far will you go for Fantastic Delites? Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Variable Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Variable Interval Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory negative examples
In 1990's the average child watched --27 hours of TV per week -1,000 murders,rapes or assaults on TV ---the same child sees 20k commercials per year featuring toys that encourage aggression
Latent Leaning Edward Toleman Latent means hidden. Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. Cognitive maps
Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler and his Chimpanzees. Some animals learn through the “ah ha” experience. Click pic to see insight learning.
Learned Helplessness (Seligman) The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.