Presentation on theme: "Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov
Terms to Know Stimulus – Causes a reaction Response – The reaction caused by a stimulus Conditioned – Taught / learned Unconditioned – Untaught / naturally occurring
Classical Conditioning This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS. UCSUCR
Classical Conditioning Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times. UCSUCR S
Classical Conditioning Learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. Now the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR). CS CR
Pavlov – One More Time
Classical Conditioning TRICKY FACT: We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. ACQUISITION-initial learning of the stimulus –response relationship. Acquisition does not last forever. The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.
Spontaneous Recovery Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.
Generalization and Discrimination Generalization Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR. Discrimination Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.
Classical Conditioning and Humans John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment. Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
Learned Taste Aversions When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. Even when food and sickness are hours apart. Food must be salient (noticeable.)
Operant Conditioning The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!!!
The Law of Effect Edward Thorndike Locked cats in a cage Behavior changes because of its consequences. Rewards strengthen behavior. If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus- Reward connection will weaken. Called the whole process instrumental learning. Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.
B.F. Skinner The father of Operant Conditioning. Nurture guy through and through. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.
Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant. It is not punishment
Positive or Negative? Putting your seatbelt on. Studying for a test. Having a headache and taking an aspirin. Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class. Breaking out of jail. Getting a kiss for doing the dishes.
Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) Removal of something pleasant. Punishment Punishment tells you what not to do Reinforcement Reinforcement tells you what to do
How do we actually use Operant Conditioning? Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior? Sometimes, we use a process called shaping. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior. To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior. To get Barry to become a better student, you need to do more than give him a massage when he gets good grades. You have to give him massages when he studies for ten minutes, or for when he completes his homework. Small steps to get to the desired behavior.
Chaining Behaviors Subjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward. Click picture to see a rat chaining behaviors. Click to see a cool example of chaining behaviors.
Same Terminology as Classical Conditioning Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination If I wanted to reinforce my sons dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….
Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Things that are in themselves rewarding. Secondary Reinforcer Things we have learned to value. Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer (because it can be traded for just about anything)
Token Economy Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers) Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.
Premack Principle You have to take into consideration the reinforcers used. Is the reinforcer wanted….or at least is it more preferable than the targeted behavior. Pats Hubbas might be a great positive reinforcer for me, but it would not work well on a vegetarian.
Reinforcement Schedules How often to you give the reinforcer? Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.
27 1.Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. 2.Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers
Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Continuous Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. Acquisition comes really fast. But so does extinction. Partial Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. Acquisition comes more slowly. But is more resistant to extinction.
Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Variable Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Variable Interval Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory Click pic to see some observational learning.
Latent Leaning Edward Toleman Three rat experiment. Latent means hidden. Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. Rats needed a reason to display what they have learned.
33 Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler and his Chimpanzees. Some animals learn through the ah ha experience. Click pic to see insight learning.
1. Once Pavlovs dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n) a) unconditioned stimulus b) neutral stimulus c) conditioned stimulus d) unconditioned response
2. Shaping is a)a pattern of responses that must be made before classical conditioning is completed b)rewarding behaviors that get closer and closer to the desired goal behavior c)completing a set of behaviors in a succession before a reward is given d) giving you chocolate pudding to increase the likelihood you will eat more carrots
3. John loves to fish. He puts his line in the water and leaves it there until he feels a tug. On what reinforcement schedule is he rewarded? a) fixed ratio b) fixed interval c) variable ratio d) variable interval
4. Chimpanzees given tokens for performing tricks were able to put the tokens in vending machines to get grapes. The tokens acted as a) primary reinforcers b) classical conditioning c) secondary reinforcers d) unconditioned reinforcers
5. Try as you might, you are unable to teach your dog to do a somersault. He will roll around on the ground, but he refuses to execute the gymnastic move you desire because of a) preparedness b) instinctive drift c) chaining d) shaping
6. Watson and Rayners classical conditioning of Little Albert was helpful in explaining that a) some conditioned stimuli do not generalize b) human emotions such as fear are subject to classical conditioning c) drug dependency is subject to classical as well as operant conditioning d) small children are not as easily conditioned as older children
7. Jamel got very sick after eating some mushrooms on a pizza at his friends house. He didnt know that he had a stomach virus at the time, blamed his illness on the mushrooms, and refused to eat them again. Which of the following is the unconditioned stimulus for his taste aversion to mushrooms? a) pizza b) stomach virus c) mushrooms d) headache
9. While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive at the answer to a chemistry problem youd been working on several hours before. This is an example of: a) insight b) backward conditioning c) latent learning d) discrimination
10. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement? a) Buying a child a video game after she throws a tantrum. b) Going inside to escape a thunderstorm. c) Assigning a student detention for fighting. d) Getting a cavity filled at the dentist to halt a toothache.
11. The first step in a behavior modification program is to a) gather baseline data b) specify the antecedent c) specify the target behavior d) design a program
12. In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the a) unconditioned stimulus b) unconditioned response c) conditioned stimulus d) conditioned response
15. The initial stage of learning a response is called a) extinction b) contiguity c) acquisition d) conditioning