2CLAStudies cognitionAll mental processes involved in attention, perception, memory decision making, problem solving and language.All the crap that goes on in your mind!!!
3What is the Mind?They tend to look at the mind and an information-processing unit.Like a computerThe brain is the hardware.The mind is the software.
4The CLA is popular…About 70% of all therapists today draw from the cognitive school.I am going to make the argument that you are all cognitive therapists!!!
5But it was not always so popular… A movement started in the early 1900s that stressed that the “mind” and “thinking” was not something you can measure.They believed that you must be able to measure something for it to be considered a “real” science.They became known as….
6BehavioristsThey thought since you could observe and record behaviors (not feelings and thoughts in the mind), then that was all that really mattered.They focused on altering behaviors (to heck with feelings)
7Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovStudied Digestion of Dogs.Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…)Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate.Click above to see about Pavlov
8Classical Conditioning This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think).First thing you need is a unconditional relationship.Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response.Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.
9Classical Conditioning Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response).You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.
10Classical Conditioning After a while, the body begins to link together the neutral stimulus with the UCS.Acquisition
11Classical Conditioning We know learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response.At this point the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).
12Classical Conditioning TRICKY FACT: We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS.This is called ACQUISITION.Acquisition does not last forever.The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.
13Spontaneous RecoverySometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.
14Generalization and Discrimination Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR.Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.
15Popular Classical Conditioning Examples See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR.Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office.A modified version of Clockwork Orange scene. Warning…it is still graphic!!!
16Classical Conditioning and Humans John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment.Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz.This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
17Learned Taste Aversions When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong.Even when food and sickness are hours apart.Food must be salient (noticeable.)
18Garcia and Koelling Study Studied rats and how they make associations.Some associations seem to be adaptive.CSUCSLearned ResponseLoud NoiseShockFearRadiation (nausea)NothingSweet WaterAvoid Water
19The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!!! Operant ConditioningThe Learner is NOT passive.Learning based on consequence!!!
20The Law of Effect Edward Thorndike Locked cats in a cage Behavior changes because of its consequences.Rewards strengthen behavior.If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus-Reward connection will weaken.Called the whole process instrumental learning.Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.
21B.F. Skinner The Mac Daddy of Operant Conditioning. Nurture guy through and through.Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.
23Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement:The addition of something pleasant.Negative Reinforcement:The removal of something unpleasant.Two types of NREscape LearningAvoidance Learning(Getting kicked out of class versus cutting class)
24Positive or Negative? Studying for a test. Putting your seatbelt on. Having a headache and taking an aspirin.Getting a kiss for doing the dishes.Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class.Breaking out of jail.
25Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment Addition of something unpleasant.Negative Punishment (Omission Training)Removal of something pleasant.Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
26How do we actually use Operant Conditioning? To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior.Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior?Sometimes, we use a process called shaping.Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior.To get Barry to become a better student, you need to do more than give him a massage when he gets good grades. You have to give him massages when he studies for ten minutes, or for when he completes his homework. Small steps to get to the desired behavior.
27Chaining BehaviorsSubjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward.Click picture to see a rat chaining behaviors.Click to see a cool example of chaining behaviors.
28Same Terminology as Classical Conditioning AcquisitionExtinctionSpontaneous RecoveryGeneralizationDiscriminationIf I wanted to reinforce my son’s dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….
29Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers Primary ReinforcerSecondary ReinforcerThings that are in themselves rewarding.Things we have learned to value.Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer (because it can be traded for just about anything)
30Token EconomyEvery time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given.They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers)Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.
31Premack PrincipleYou have to take into consideration the reinforcers used.Is the reinforcer wanted….or at least is it more preferable than the targeted behavior.Pat’s Hubbas might be a great positive reinforcer for me, but it would not work well on a vegetarian.
32Reinforcement Schedules How often to you give the reinforcer?Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.
33Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited.Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association.Acquisition comes really fast.But so does extinction.Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited.Acquisition comes more slowly.But is more resistant to extinction.FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules.
34Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses.Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses.Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction.Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
35Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement.Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement.Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction.Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
36Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo DollWe learn through modeling behavior from others.Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning TheoryClick pic to see some observational learning.