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Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.

2 Learning We will be studying three types of learning… 1.Conditioning A. Classical conditioning B. Operant conditioning 2.Observational learning 3.Latent learning

3 Conditioning – a type of learning that involves a stimulus – response connection – A learned association: certain events occur together stimulus – feature in the environment that is detected by an organism and produces a reaction. response – observable reaction to a stimulus

4 1A. Classical Conditioning (Learning by association) Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food. Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate.

5 Classical Conditioning

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7 Automatic/reflexive…(the learner does NOT have to think). First thing you need is an automatic relationship. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- something that naturally and automatically triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UR)- the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.

8 Classical Conditioning Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). You pair the stimulus with the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) several times.

9 Classical Conditioning After a while, the body begins to link/associate the neutral stimulus with the Unconditioned Stimulus ( US).

10 Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with the US, comes to trigger a response. – Neutral stimulus becomes a Conditioned stimulus Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

11 John Watson (observable behavior should be studied instead of mental processes) brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment.

12 Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office. See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR.

13 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning terms – Taste aversion – Extinction – Spontaneous recovery – Generalization – Discrimination Use of classical conditioning in psychology – Flooding – Systematic desensitization – Counter conditioning

14 Adapting to the environment Taste aversion- learned avoidance of a particular food Extinction- gradual weakening of a CR when the CS appears repeatedly w/out US Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of an extinguished CR Generalization- same response to 2 similar stimuli (rat & rabbit) Discrimination- different response to 2 slightly different stimuli (ice cream & pudding)

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16 Use of classical conditioning in psychology Flooding- intense exposure to harmless stimuli until fear response is extinguished Systematic desensitization-exposure to fearful stimuli while learning to relax Counter conditioning-a pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear

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19 1B. Operant Conditioning The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequences!!!

20 Operant Conditioning (Learning by consequences) A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or weakened if followed by punishment.

21 B.F. Skinner The Mac Daddy of Operant Conditioning. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.

22 Skinner Box

23 Reinforcers A reinforcer is anything that INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant (add). A “reward” Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant (subtract). Not a punishment

24 Positive or Negative Reinforcement? Kiss for doing the dishes Loud, irritating buzz until driver puts on seat belt Treat for your dog when he sits Prisoners try to break out of jail to escape being locked up

25 Positive or Negative Reinforcement? Taking aspirin for a headache Scratching an itch $ for A’s on your report card Hit snooze alarm at 6 am Drinking or taking drugs

26 Operant Conditioning puppy learns to roll over

27 Punishment Meant to DECREASE a behavior. Addition of something unpleasant. Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!

28 Positive Reinforcement or Punishment? (Increase or decrease behavior?) Receiving broccoli after behavior “X” – Love broccoli – Hate broccoli Being screamed at by parent – Neglected child – Nurtured child

29 Checkout lane at Target Name that reinforcement ChildMother BehaviorThrowing a tantrum!!! Giving candy ConsequenceReceive candyTantrum ends/peace and quiet ResultMore tantrums in future Giving more candy in future

30 Reinforcement Versus Punishment Reinforcement Punishment Positive Stimulus is... Presented Behavior... Increases Negative Positive RemovedPresentedRemoved Behavior... Increases Decreases Stimulus is...

31 How do we actually use Operant Conditioning?... Shaping Shaping-procedure in Operant Conditioning in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer towards a goal. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior. To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior.

32 Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

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34 Token Economy Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. Can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers). Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.

35 2 Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. No reinforcement necessary for learning

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38 Media Violence & Children TV- major source of informal observational learning Children see an average of 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence before elementary school. American Psychological Association – Media violence supplies models of aggressive skills children may learn – May view violence as effective way of settling conflict – Emotional desensitization – Higher tendency for violent and aggressive behavior

39 3 Latent Learning Edward Toleman “Cognitive maps” Maze running rats, ones that didn’t initially get a reward didn’t seem to learn, but when they started being rewarded their performance changed drastically Latent means hidden. Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. No reinforcement necessary for learning Group 1 always found food at the end of the maze. Group 2 never found food. Group 3 found no food for 10 days, but then received food on the 11 th day.

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41 Latent Learning Example If you are in a car going to school with a friend every day, but your friend is driving all the time, you may learn the way to get to school, but have no reason to demonstrate this knowledge. However, when your friend gets sick one day and you have to drive yourself for the first time, if you can get to school following the same route you would go if your friend was driving, then you have demonstrated latent learning.

42 What ever happened to “Little Albert”? albert.aspx albert.aspx


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