Presentation on theme: "Communist Triumph in China. Main Idea After WWII, Chinese Communist defeated Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerged."— Presentation transcript:
Communist Triumph in China
Main Idea After WWII, Chinese Communist defeated Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerged.
Why it Matters Now? China remains a Communist country and a major player of the world stage.
Setting the Stage In WWII, China fought with the allies. During the war Japan’s occupation destroyed China’s major cities. China’s civilian death toll was in the millions. This was second only to Russia.
Civil War In China When the Japanese invaded in 1937, China was in a Civil war between Nationalist and Communist. During WWII they fought together against Japan. Once the war ended the Civil war continued.
Internal Struggles The Communist under leader Mao Zedong, held northwestern China. The Chinese peasants helped them mobilize and create guerrilla war against the Japanese. The efforts to teach literacy and provide food production gave the Chinese the loyalty of the peasants.
Internal Struggles Jiang Jieshi controlled the national forces and they were in southwestern China The Nationalist Army was protected by a Mountain from the Japanese. Jiang gathered an army of 2.5 million The US gave them $1.5 billion to fight Japanese.
Internal Struggles Instead of using the Money to support the army it went into the hands of corrupt officers. Jiang’s army fought few battles against the Japanese, instead it resources for the coming battle against Mao’s Red Army. As soon as the Japan surrendered the civil war resumed.
Chinese Political Opponents 1945 Nationalists Leader: Jiang Jieshi Area Ruled: Southern China Foreign Support: United States Domestic Policy: Defeat of Communist. Public Support: Weak b/c inflation/econ. Military Organization: Ineffective, Corrupt
Chinese Political Opponents 1945 Communists Leader: Mao Zedong Area Ruled: Northern China Foreign Support: Soviet Union Domestic Policy: National Liberation Public Support: Strong, promised land reform Military Organization: Experienced, motivated guerrilla army
Involvement of the United States The Civil War lasted from At first the Nationalist enjoyed all the advantages. They outnumbered the Communist soldiers 3 to 1, and the US gave them $2 billion more in aid. The Nationalist However, did nothing to help their cause with the people of china.
Involvement of the United States 1000’s of Nationalist soldiers began to desert to the Communist. China’s major cities were falling to the Red Army. Mao’s Army was better trained and motivated at the promise of returned land to the people. In October 1949 Mao controlled the country. Jiang’s army fled south.
Involvement of the United States He called the new county the People’s Republic of China. Mao’s victory fueled the US’s anti- communist feeling. Then China/USSR sign treaty US Viewed this as Communism trying to take over the world.
Two Chinas and the Cold War China had split into two nations Nationalist China or Taiwan. People’s Republic of China or Mainland china. These two china’s and the difference between land masses only fueled the flames of the cold war.
The Superpowers React The US supported Taiwan and the Soviets supported China, both with money, military, and technology. The US and USSR also divided up Japan (US getting more) and Korea into Soviet supported North and US supported South.
Communist China Continues to Expand Under Mao, China expanded into Mongolia, Tibet, and India. The religious leader in Tibet, the Dalai Lama was forced to flee to India were he was welcomed China/India Border dispute. China was able to maintain and holds it border.
Transformation and Revolution China for decades had either been at war or occupied by Japan, so Mao moved to get fast control over the 550 million people in China.
Transformation Under Mao Zedong The Chinese Government set up two parallel organizations. These were the Communist party And the National Government. Until 1959 Mao ruled both as chairman of the Communist party and head of State.
Mao’s Marxist Socialism Mao determined to reshape China’s economy based on Marxist socialism 10% of the rural population owned 70% of the land, so Mao took it away and gave it to the peasants and killed over a million people who resisted. He installed collective farms, gave women equality at work and home.
Mao’s Marxist Socialism He created state sponsored child care. He brought all private business and industry under the Government control Set us a Soviet style 5 year plan. The plan succeeded, China’s output of coal, cement, and electricity had doubled, steel had quadrupled.
Mao’s Communes 1958 Mao proclaimed the “great leap forward,” This plan called for even larger collective farms, or COMMUNES. By the end of 1958 they had created about 26,000 Communes. The avg. Commune spread over 15,000acres and supported 25,000 people.
Mao’s Communes The great leap forward, was really a great leap backwards. The peasants were organized into “production battalions,” and under the leadership of a squad leader they had to eat, sleep, and raise their children in a communal situation. Most peasants hated this situation.
Mao’s Communes Worst of all between 1958 and 1961 crop failures killed around 20 million people. The Government officially discontinued the program in 1961.
New Policies and Mao’s Response China’s and USSR’s relationship began to fade. Both countries sought to led the worldwide communist movement. They shared the world’s longest border and had many disputes about it. In 1960 the Soviets had ended economic aid to China
New Policies and Mao’s Response After the split with USSR and the failure of the “Great leap forward,” Mao reduced his role in government. The new leaders move away from the strict commune rules. Farm families could live in a house, sell crops they grew, and compete for wages and promotions.
New Policies and Mao’s Response Mao was not happy about the new economic policies. In 1966 Mao launched a new revolution campaign. He urged young people to, “learn revolution by making revolution.” Millions of high-school and college responded and formed the militia called the Red Guards.
The Cultural Revolution The Red Guards led a major uprising known as the Cultural Revolution. The goal was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. The new hero was a peasant who worked with his hands. Intellectuals were considered dangerous. The Red Guards shut down schools and colleges.
The Cultural Revolution Exiled intellectuals had to “Purify,” themselves by doing hard labor in remote villages. 1000’s were killed or died in jail. There was widespread violence. The Chaos closed down factories and stalled farm productions. Civil War seemed possible.
The Cultural Revolution By 1976, even Mao admitted the Cultural Revolution had to stop. With Mao’s permission the Army dissolved the Red Guards. Zhou Enlai began to restore order in China. He had been premier since 1949.