Presentation on theme: "World War II Begins Chapter 11.2 Before 1940 the European leaders did not try to stop Hitler. Instead they tried without success to buy peace by giving."— Presentation transcript:
World War II Begins Chapter 11.2 Before 1940 the European leaders did not try to stop Hitler. Instead they tried without success to buy peace by giving in to his demand. They believed that if they negotiated with him and somehow satisfy him, war could be avoided.
They believed this for three reasons: 1.The memory of World War I made many leaders fearful of another bloody war. 2.Some thought Hitler’s demand for all German-speaking regions in Europe being united with Germany was reasonable. 3.Many people assumed that the Nazis would be more interested in peace once they gained more territory.
The Austrian Anschluss In 1937 Hitler renewed his call for the unification of all German speaking people. In February of 1938 he threatens to invade Austria (land of his birth) unless Nazis in that area were given important government positions. The Austrian Chancellor did it. Weeks later he tried to put it up for a vote. This angered Hitler and he invaded Austria and occupied it (took over).
Hitler eyes Czechoslovakia: Shortly after annexing Austria Hitler announced claims on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, an area with a large German speaking population. However, in Czechoslovakia, Many other languages were spoken as well. A democracy existed. They had allies – France and the Soviet Union.
The Czechs strongly resisted Germany’s demands for the Sudetenland. France threatens to come to the aid of the Czechs. The Soviet Union promised to assist also. Britain promises to support France. Representatives from Britain, France, Germany and Italy agree to meet to discuss the fate of Czechoslovakia. The Munich Conference September 29, 1938 Who is missing?
… “Peace with Honor … Peace in our time,” At the Munich conference Britain and France give in to Hitler’s demands, a policy of appeasement. Appeasement is the policy of giving in to someone else’s demand in order to keep the peace. They felt that if they gave Hitler what he wanted, he would be satisfied and war would be averted.
Czechoslovakia was told they had to go along with the decision or fight Hitler and the powerful German army on their own. Neville Chamberlain returned to Britain and proclaimed “peace with honor … peace in our time.” He was wrong. The following March, Hitler stormed into Czechoslovakia and took over the whole nation.
In the mean time, Chamberlain ordered that Britain begin rearmament
Hitler moves again – Danzig and the Polish Corridor October 1938 – Hitler turns his sights on Poland to an area which used to belong to Germany – Danzig was more than 90% German.
Germany had to give it up as an agreement after World War I so the newly established country of Poland could have access to the Baltic Sea. Hitler’s demands on Poland convinced Britain that appeasement had failed. March 31, 1939 – Britain announces that if Hitler moves on Poland, Britain and France would come to Poland’s aid. May 1939 – Hitler orders his foreign minister to prepare to invade Poland. But First …
The German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. Stalin agrees to a deal with Hitler not to attack Germany when they attack Poland. Poland was the target. August 23, 1939 Stalin believed that the two capitalist nations of Britain and Germany would fight against themselves and be weakened. But the USSR would be safe. Secretly, Germany and The USSR agree to divide up Poland between themselves.
With the USSR taken care of Hitler did not have to worry about fighting a war on two fronts – Germany’s mistake in WWI. One week later September 1, 1939 World War II Begins Germany Invades Poland
September 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany By October 5 th, Germany had defeated Poland. While Germany attacked from the west, The USSR attacked from the East shortly after.
Who will be next? Hitler sets his sights on France: West of Germany a “sitzkreig” or sitting war was going on. France is waiting for Germany to attack. A.K.A “Bore War” and “Phony War” The French army is waiting along the Maginot line.
But before France … Norway and Denmark fall – iron ore from Sweden shipped along the coast of Norway. Then the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
Now France – Settle some old scores. Blitzkrieg in the west through Belgium down into France, cutting off the French and British troops in the North. They cannot retreat back to Paris to save France.
The Miracle at DunKirk: Over 338,000 troops get caught between the Germans and the English Channel. Hitler orders his army to stop in the hopes that he could reach peace with France and Britain if he did not humiliate their troops. (speculation) This gives the British time to organize a rescue with over 850 ships of all kinds who took the troops from Dunkirk to England.
Left behind for the Germans to take – 90,000 rifles, 7,000 tons of ammunition, and 120,00 vehicles. But they live to fight another day.
Three weeks later, June 1940, France surrenders to Germany in the same railroad car that Germany surrendered to France in WWI.
Germany controls northern France and Hitler sets up a “puppet government” in Southern France known as Vichy France. Leader – Philippe Petain.
Now Hitler goes for Great Britain: Hitler fully expected Britain to negotiate for peace after Germany’s quick and decisive victory over the rest of Europe. But for Winston Churchill, peace with Germany was not an option.
“Even though large tracts of Europe have fallen … we shall not flag or fail …. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the field and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” Churchill and Britain remained defiant, and Churchill’s speeches were designed to rally support from his people and to inform isolationist USA to Britain’s plight with Germany.
Hitler realized Britain would not surrender. So how would Germany go about attacking it? A land invasion was too difficult and dangerous. Before he could pull off a land invasion he had to defeat them by air, defeat the British airforce. June 1940 – Germany attacks British shipping in the English Channel. August 1940 – Germany begins an all out air battle to destroy the British airforce.
This battle was known as the Battle of Britain. It lasted into the fall of 1940, several months. Hitler’s plan was to terrorize Britain into a surrender. The German air force (Luftwaffe) bombed London every night. Londoners lived in the subways and the countryside. They outlasted Hitler’s assault. Hitler’s attempt to destroy the British morale failed.
One reason it failed, the British developed a new technology that informed them of a coming air attack – RADAR. This new technology gave the British airforce time to scrabble planes to meet the Luftwaffe in the air and keep most of the attack away from London.
Churchill – “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” On October 12, 1940, Hitler called off the invasion of Britain. Who would be next on Hitler’s hit list?