Presentation on theme: "What is Organizational Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is Organizational Behavior? The Organization as a Social SystemRoles of the Manager
2Studying Organizational Behavior An organization is a coordinated unit consisting of at least two people who function to achieve a common goal.The study of organizational behavior focuses on individuals’:PerceptionsValuesLearning capacitiesActions
3Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
4Contributing Disciplines PsychologySociologySocial PsychologyAnthropologyMany behavioral scienceshave contributed to thedevelopment ofOrganizationalBehavior
5PsychologyThe science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.Unit of Analysis:IndividualContributions to OB:Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perceptionTraining, leadership effectiveness, job satisfactionIndividual decision making, performance appraisal attitude measurementEmployee selection, work design, and work stress
6The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings. SociologyThe study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.Unit of Analysis:-- Organizational System-- GroupContributions to OB:Group dynamicsWork teamsCommunicationPowerConflictIntergroup behaviorFormal organization theoryOrganizational technologyOrganizational changeOrganizational culture
7Social PsychologyAn area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.Unit of Analysis:GroupContributions to OB:Behavioral changeAttitude changeCommunicationGroup processesGroup decision making
8Political ScienceThe study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political frameworkInfluence tacticsPower & ethicsPolitical strategiesConflict resolutionEmpowerment
9AnthropologyThe study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.Unit of Analysis:-- Organizational System-- GroupContributions to OB:Organizational cultureOrganizational environmentComparative valuesComparative attitudesCross-cultural analysis
10Studying Organizational Behavior A person’s behavior involves the interaction of the person’s personal characteristics and the characteristics of the situation.Organizational behavior is affected by:Structure: the formal pattern of how people and jobs are grouped (the org chart)Processes: the way tasks are handledCulture: a pattern of assumptionsManagers must recognize problem indicators.People are unique and can be unpredictable.
11What Managers Do They get things done through other people. Management Activities:Make decisionsAllocate resourcesDirect activities of others to attain goalsWork in an organizationA consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
13Management Functions: Plan ControlLeadOrganizePlanA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.As managers advance, they do this function more often.
14Management Functions: Organize ControlLeadOrganizePlanDetermining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
15Management Functions: Lead ControlLeadOrganizePlanA function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.It is about PEOPLE!
16Management Functions: Control LeadOrganizeMonitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation.
17A Model for Managing Organizations: Behavior, Structure, and Processes The Structure and Design of OrganizationsManagers must understand organizational structure to work effectively.Job design is the process by which managers specify the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs.Organizational design refers to overall organizational structure, including the structure of tasks, authority, and interpersonal relationships.Formal groups are created by managers to carry out jobs and tasks; informal groups develop around common interests and friendship.
18A Model for Managing Organizations: Behavior, Structure, and Processes The Processes of OrganizationsWhen processes don’t work well, problems result.Organizational survival depends on information and communication.Good decision making depends on selecting proper goals and identifying ways to achieve them.Managerial decision making is permeated by ethical issues.Managers display their moral and personal values when they make decisions.
19Perspectives on Effectiveness The behavior of people in organizationsThere are three levels of effectiveness:Individual: working aloneGroup: individuals working togetherOrganizational: combined efforts of individuals and groupsManagers must identify the causes of effectivenessSynergy occurs when the sum of individual contributions exceeds the simple summation of them.All must work together as a social system
20The Organization as a Social System Getzels – Guba ModelThe Organization as a Social SystemInstitutionRoleExpectationGroupClimateIntentionsIndividualPersonalityNeedDispositionObservedBehaviorIdeographic (Individual) DimensionNomothethic (Organizational) DimensionOrganizationAs ASocial System