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What is Organizational Behavior? The Organization as a Social System Roles of the Manager.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Organizational Behavior? The Organization as a Social System Roles of the Manager."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Organizational Behavior? The Organization as a Social System Roles of the Manager

2 Studying Organizational Behavior An organization is a coordinated unit consisting of at least two people who function to achieve a common goal. The study of organizational behavior focuses on individuals: – Perceptions – Values – Learning capacities – Actions

3 Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness.

4 Contributing Disciplines PsychologySociology Social Psychology Anthropology Many behavioral sciences have contributed to the development of Organizational Behavior

5 Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Unit of Analysis: – Individual Contributions to OB: – Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception – Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction – Individual decision making, performance appraisal attitude measurement – Employee selection, work design, and work stress

6 Sociology Unit of Analysis: -- Organizational System Contributions to OB: – Group dynamics – Work teams – Communication – Power – Conflict – Intergroup behavior -- Group – Formal organization theory – Organizational technology – Organizational change – Organizational culture The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.

7 Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Unit of Analysis: – Group Contributions to OB: – Behavioral change – Attitude change – Communication – Group processes – Group decision making

8 Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political framework Influence tactics Power & ethics Political strategies Conflict resolution Empowerment

9 Anthropology Unit of Analysis: -- Organizational System Contributions to OB: – Organizational culture – Organizational environment -- Group – Comparative values – Comparative attitudes – Cross-cultural analysis The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.

10 Studying Organizational Behavior A persons behavior involves the interaction of the persons personal characteristics and the characteristics of the situation. Organizational behavior is affected by: – Structure: the formal pattern of how people and jobs are grouped (the org chart) – Processes: the way tasks are handled – Culture: a pattern of assumptions Managers must recognize problem indicators. People are unique and can be unpredictable.

11 What Managers Do They get things done through other people. Management Activities: –Make decisions –Allocate resources –Direct activities of others to attain goals Work in an organization –A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

12 Management Functions Control Lead Organize Plan

13 Management Functions: Plan A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. As managers advance, they do this function more often. Control Lead Organize Plan

14 Management Functions: Organize Control Lead Organize Plan Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.

15 Management Functions: Lead Control Lead Organize Plan A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. It is about PEOPLE!

16 Management Functions: Control Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation. Control Lead Organize Lead

17 A Model for Managing Organizations: Behavior, Structure, and Processes The Structure and Design of Organizations – Managers must understand organizational structure to work effectively. – Job design is the process by which managers specify the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs. – Organizational design refers to overall organizational structure, including the structure of tasks, authority, and interpersonal relationships. – Formal groups are created by managers to carry out jobs and tasks; informal groups develop around common interests and friendship.

18 A Model for Managing Organizations: Behavior, Structure, and Processes The Processes of Organizations – When processes dont work well, problems result. – Organizational survival depends on information and communication. – Good decision making depends on selecting proper goals and identifying ways to achieve them. – Managerial decision making is permeated by ethical issues. – Managers display their moral and personal values when they make decisions.

19 Perspectives on Effectiveness The behavior of people in organizations There are three levels of effectiveness: – Individual: working alone – Group: individuals working together – Organizational: combined efforts of individuals and groups Managers must identify the causes of effectiveness Synergy occurs when the sum of individual contributions exceeds the simple summation of them. All must work together as a social system

20 Institution RoleExpectation GroupClimate Intentions IndividualPersonality Need Disposition Observed Behavior Ideographic (Individual) Dimension Nomothethic (Organizational) Dimension Organization As A Social System Getzels – Guba Model The Organization as a Social System

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