Presentation on theme: "What Is Organizational Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1What Is Organizational Behavior?
2 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills Understanding OB helps determine manager effectivenessTechnical and quantitative skills are importantBut leadership and communication skills are CRITICALOrganizational benefits of skilled managersLower turnover of quality employeesHigher quality applications for recruitmentBetter financial performance
3 What Managers Do They get things done through other people. Management Activities:Make decisionsAllocate resourcesDirect activities of others to attain goalsWork in an organizationA consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
5 Management Functions: Plan ControlLeadOrganizePlanA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.As managers advance, they do this function more often.
6 Management Functions: Organize ControlLeadOrganizePlanDetermining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
7 Management Functions: Lead ControlLeadOrganizePlanA function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.It is about PEOPLE!
8 Management Functions: Control LeadOrganizeMonitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation.
9 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Discovered ten managerial rolesSeparated into three groups:InterpersonalInformationalDecisionalE X H I B I T 1–1
13 Katz’s Essential Management Skills Technical SkillsThe ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertiseHuman SkillsThe ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groupsConceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
14 Luthans’ Study of Managerial Activities Is there a difference in frequency of managerial activity between effective and successful managers?Four types of managerial activity:Traditional ManagementDecision-making, planning, and controlling.CommunicationExchanging routine information and processing paperworkHuman Resource ManagementMotivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.NetworkingSocializing, politicking, and interacting with others.
15 Successful vs. Effective Allocation by Time Managers who promoted faster (were successful) did different things than did effective managers (those who did their jobs well)E X H I B I T 1–2
16 Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
17 Intuition and Systematic Study Gut feelingsIndividual observationCommonsenseSystematic StudyLooks at relationshipsScientific evidencePredicts behaviorsThe two are complementary means of predicting behavior.
18 An Outgrowth of Systematic Study… Evidence-Based Management (EBM)Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidenceMust think like scientists:Pose a managerial questionSearch for best available evidenceApply relevant information to case
19 Managers Should Use All Three Approaches The trick is to know when to go with your gut.– Jack WelshIntuition is often based on inaccurate informationFaddism is prevalent in managementSystematic study can be time-consumingUse evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. That is the promise of OB.
20 Contributing Disciplines PsychologySociologySocial PsychologyAnthropologyMany behavioral scienceshave contributed to thedevelopment ofOrganizationalBehaviorSee E X H I B I T 1–3 for details
21 PsychologyThe science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.Unit of Analysis:IndividualContributions to OB:Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perceptionTraining, leadership effectiveness, job satisfactionIndividual decision making, performance appraisal attitude measurementEmployee selection, work design, and work stress
22 Social PsychologyAn area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.Unit of Analysis:GroupContributions to OB:Behavioral changeAttitude changeCommunicationGroup processesGroup decision making
23 SociologyUnit of Analysis:-- Organizational SystemThe study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.-- GroupContributions to OB:Group dynamicsWork teamsCommunicationPowerConflictIntergroup behaviorFormal organization theoryOrganizational technologyOrganizational changeOrganizational culture
24 AnthropologyUnit of Analysis:-- Organizational SystemThe study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.-- GroupContributions to OB:Organizational cultureOrganizational environmentComparative valuesComparative attitudesCross-cultural analysis
25 Few Absolutes in OBSituational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change—e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another.Contingency Variable (Z)Independent Variable (X)Dependent Variable (Y)In American CultureBoss Gives “Thumbs Up” SignUnderstood as ComplimentingIn Iranian or Australian CulturesUnderstood as Insulting - “Up Yours!”
26 Challenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to GlobalizationManaging Workforce DiversityImproving Quality and ProductivityImproving Customer ServiceImproving People SkillsStimulating Innovation and ChangeCoping with “Temporariness”Working in Networked OrganizationsHelping Employees Balance Work-Life ConflictsCreating a Positive Work EnvironmentImproving Ethical Behavior
27 Responding to Globalization Increased foreign assignmentsWorking with people from different culturesCoping with anti-capitalism backlashOverseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost laborManaging people during the war on terror
28 Managing Workforce Diversity The people in organizations are becoming more heterogeneous demographicallyEmbracing diversityChanging U.S. demographicsChanging management philosophyRecognizing and responding to differencesDisabilityGenderAgeNational OriginNon-ChristianRaceDomestic PartnersSee E X H I B I T 1–4
29 Developing an OB ModelA model is an abstraction of reality: a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.Our OB model has three levels of analysisEach level is constructed on the prior levelE X H I B I T 1–5
30 Types of Study Variables Independent (X)Dependent (Y)The presumed cause of the change in the dependent variable (Y).This is the variable that OB researchers manipulate to observe the changes in Y.This is the response to X (the independent variable).It is what the OB researchers want to predict or explain.The interesting variable!XYPredictive Ability
31 Interesting OB Dependent Variables ProductivityTransforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost).AbsenteeismFailure to report to work – a huge cost to employers.TurnoverVoluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.Deviant Workplace BehaviorVoluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members.
32 More Interesting OB Dependent Variables Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.Job SatisfactionA general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
33 The Independent Variables The independent variable (X) can be at any of these three levels in this model:IndividualBiographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes, ability, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision making.GroupCommunication, group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, conflict, power and politics, and work teams.Organization SystemOrganizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design.
34 OB Model Dependent Variables (Y) Three Levels Independent Variables (X)E X H I B I T 1–6
35 Summary and Managerial Implications Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills to be effective.OB focuses on how to improve factors that make organizations more effective.The best predictions of behavior are made from a combination of systematic study and intuition.Situational variables moderate cause-and-effect relationships – which is why OB theories are contingent.There are many OB challenges and opportunities for managers today.The textbook is based on the contingent OB model.