Presentation on theme: "Colonization & Independence"— Presentation transcript:
1 Colonization & Independence Latin AmericaColonization & Independence
2 Aztec Empire Recap1200sTribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico.Major accomplishmentsMathematical & Calendar systemsto maintain/organize their empireFarming system was very efficient- Chinampas
3 Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
4 Aztec Empire Recap1521Cortes defeats Montezuma (emperor) and the AztecsWhy were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztecs so easily?Superior weapons, European diseases, Aztec enemies helped the Spanish
5 Inca Empire Recap1200 ADInca settle along the Pacific Coast of S. AmericaAccomplishments include: roads, terracing, aqueducts
6 Inca Empire Recap1533 ADFrancisco Pizarro defeats the Atahualpa & the IncaForces the Inca to work on the encomiendasSpanish mission systemNatives die from starvation, European disease, overwork
7 In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. In theory, the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products. In practice, the difference between encomienda and slavery could be minimal. Natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted.
8 European Colonization Colonial InfluenceEuropean ColonizationSpain wealthy enough to pay for explorationGold, God, Glory
9 1494 AD Treaty of Tordesillas signed Set the Line of Demarcation Signed between Spain and PortugalSet the Line of DemarcationImaginary line at 50 degrees longitude.Spain claimed land west of the linePortugal claimed land east of the lineThis is why Brazil speaks PortugueseVideo clip
10 How was Latin America divided? Spain divided the territory into 2 provincesNew Spain (Mexico/Central America)Capital was Mexico City - Built on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlan.Peru (South America)Capital was LimaCaribbean Islands were also colonized primarily by Spain . . .The Netherlands (Dutch), France, England, and Denmark also colonized the Caribbean.Came in search of wealth and natural resources
11 Was there a specific social structure in New Spain & Peru? PeninsularesSpanish colonists directly from SpainCriollosSpanish colonists born in the colony whose parents were born in SpainMestizosPeople of Native American and Spanish descentNative AmericansSlaves didn’t even make it on the listPeninsularesCriollosMestizosNative Americans
12 Role of Native Americans Native Americans were captured and forced into slavery on large plantationsHaciendas = large ranches or plantationsThis was called the encomienda system.Encomienda is a system of forced labor.Natives worked in return for protection.
13 Native Americans were not good slaves They knew the land and found escape relatively easyHowever, many died from starvation, overwork & diseases.
14 Columbian Exchange 1500’s AD Columbian exchange took place between the Americas and Europe.Named after Christopher ColumbusDescribes the exchange of crops, goods, animals and diseases between Europe and its colonies.Goods taken to EuropePotatoes, beans, maize (corn), squash, pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers and chocolate
15 Columbian Exchange Goods taken to the Americas Sugar cane, wheat, barleySheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horsesHorses had a great impact on the natives, especially how they conducted warNegative impact in the Americas = European diseaseMeasles, influenza and smallpox
17 Impact of Columbian Exchange Decline of indigenous populationsNatives lacked immunity to European diseasesBetween 1492 and 1650, 80% of Native Americans died from European diseases.Agricultural ChangeNew foods brought to Europe and Latin AmericaIntroduction of the horseBrought from EuropeUsed for transportation and laborHelped Native Americans huntMain form of transportation until the early 20th century
18 Slave Trade1510 ADFirst African slaves brought to the Caribbean & South AmericaUsed to work on the sugar plantations and mine silver – required a HUGE & CHEAP workforceEuropeans introduced sugar cane to the West Indies. They then sent it back to Europe to be used as a popular sweetener.
19 Coffee was also introduced as a popular crop that required additional workers. The Brazilian coffee industry benefited greatly from the introduction of slavery.
20 Slave Trade Natives were used as slaves first. Many natives died from diseases such as themeasles, malaria, and small pox. (50-75%)They also escaped easily. . . WHY?
21 Slave Trade Europeans replaced the native slaves (who had died) with Africans as slaves over time.WHY???Highly skilled farmers and metal workersCould handle the hot climateCould not escape as easilyMore immune to diseaseAfrican slaves also experienced horrible conditions similar to those of the natives.
22 Slave TradeAfrican slavery was extremely important in the development of South America & the Caribbean for the next 300 years.As the industries that required slaves grew So did the number of slaves.Slaves were required in order to help the plantations be successful.Brazil imported more slaves than any other country in the world.In the 1700’s, sugarcane production in Jamaica and modern Haiti surpassed Brazil.The Caribbean islands became VERY important to their colonial powers. WHY?
23 Slave Trade 9 out of 10 inhabitants in the Caribbean were slaves As the colonies gained their independence, so did the slaves.Most Caribbean people today are descendants from African slaves.This continues to blend the ethnic groups within Latin America.
24 What was the Spanish Mission system? System for Spain to defend its empire’s borders against other empires, such as Portugal, France, and Britain.
25 Under this system . . .Priests were to manage the haciendas and convert natives to Christianity.Spread of the Spanish language and culture throughout Latin America.Some natives converted quickly Others rebelled against the Spanish.Economically, the mission system was only successful in Mexico, but not in other parts of Latin America.
26 Impact of Colonization TODAY People and culture of Latin America are a blend of native and European customs.LanguageMajor factor that links all the countries together and makes it a cultural region.Spanish is the predominate language WHY?Because most of the countries were established by SpainBrazil speaks Portuguese WHY?Some indigenous languages still exist in isolated areas
27 How do you think early setters and natives communicated with each other? Ethnic Groups – started to blend together.Mestizos – Native American and EuropeanMulattos – Africans and EuropeansReligionMajor religion is Catholicism – brought by the EuropeansReplaced the practice of idol worship and human sacrifice
28 Independence Movements Haiti, Mexico & South America
29 What world events influenced the Latin American independence movements? Late 1700’s - American Revolution & French RevolutionEarly 1800’s - Colonists in Latin America were tired of watching Spain and Portugal gain riches at their expense.
30 Became disgruntled & saw others in other countries rebel against monarchs and win! Led by criollos, who were wealthy but had no political power because they had not been born in Spain
31 Caribbean Independence Movement - Haiti Haiti was a French colony known as St. DomingueThe French brought African slaves to work on the HUGE sugar cane and coffee plantations1789 – Slaves were given freedom after the French Revolution HOWEVER , in 1791 they changed their minds.How would this make you feel?
32 In 1791, Haiti became the only country in the Americas to have a successful slave revolt – thousands of slavesTired of working long hours under terrible conditions.Killed thousands of colonists and burned the land.Toussaint L’Ouverture helped to banish slavery on the island. He was a former slave But educated.1794 – the slaves were freed But now had to fight the Spanish and British who were trying to take over the island.
33 1799- Toussaint controlled the country and named himself dictator for life. Began to rebuild the country Set up a constitution, guaranteed decent wages, housing and medical care for the people.
34 French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was insulted by Toussaints’s declaration that he was dictator for life He sent the army to retake the colony.Toussaint was captured and died in a French prison.1803 – French gave up the island because many soldiers died from yellow fever1804 – Gained their complete independence!
35 Haiti was the first Latin American country to break free from Imperialism. However, they have lived under harsh dictators and are the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.
36 Mexican Independence Movement Spanish ruled MexicoEarly 1800’sMany Mexican leaders began to call for independence from Spain
37 A criollo priest (Catholic) Miguel Hidalgo:A criollo priest (Catholic)Why would the criollos be most likely to lead the revolution?Led revolution movement in Mexico
38 Hidalgo believed in social reform – change for the better in society Slaves should be freedLand held by Spain should be returned to Mexican farmersSpain should stop taxing Mexican citizens so heavily
39 1808 – France invaded Spain . . . Spain’s government was in distress Father Hidalgo seized the moment!!!Father Hidalgo gave a speech on September 16, 1810 known as the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”)
40 He urged the Mexican people to rebel against Spanish rule (Mexico’s independence day is celebrated on the anniversary of this speech!)He urged the Mexican people to rebel against Spanish ruleLed a small group of protestors to Mexico City By the time they arrived, the group had grown to 2,000 people. But they were NO match for the weapons of the government soldiers.
41 Hildalgo formed an army of 80,000 but lost more battles than he won He was captured and executed in 1811 for treason. Rebels continued fighting though – Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence” – The last of the Spanish troops left Mexico.
42 Spanish Control in S. America SpainRuled over most of S. America for 300 yearsSpain grew enormously wealthyColonists wanted to share in the political and economic wealth – decided to fight for independence
43 South American Independence *HH 1804 : Simon Bolivar – joins the independence movementVenezuelan criolloTraveled to Spain and was convinced that Venezuela should be free from Spain’s control.
44 1810Bolivar fought for 15 years to liberate many countries in S. America.Became president of the republic of Gran ColombiaModern Day – Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, EcuadorLiberated Peru and Bolivia Added them to his republic.
45 Nicknamed El Libertador Also nicknamed the “George Washington of S. America” because of his battle to free much of S. America from Spanish control.Bolivia was named after him.He died in 1830 from tuberculosis.
46 Spanish Colonies in South America 1808 – 1830 ADMost countries gain their independence1811 = Paraguay1816 = Argentina1818 = Chile1819 = Colombia1822 = Ecuador1824 = Peru1825 = Uruguay1830 = Venezuela
47 Portuguese Colony in S. America PortugalRuled over most of South America for 300 years1822 ADBrazil gained its Independence without a major fight.