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Latin America Colonization & Independence. Aztec Empire Recap 1200s 1200s Tribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico. Tribe of hunters/farmers.

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Presentation on theme: "Latin America Colonization & Independence. Aztec Empire Recap 1200s 1200s Tribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico. Tribe of hunters/farmers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin America Colonization & Independence

2 Aztec Empire Recap 1200s 1200s Tribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico. Tribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico. Major accomplishments Major accomplishments Mathematical & Calendar systems to maintain/organize their empire Mathematical & Calendar systems to maintain/organize their empire Farming system was very efficient - Chinampas Farming system was very efficient - Chinampas Cortes defeats Montezuma (emperor) and the Aztecs Cortes defeats Montezuma (emperor) and the Aztecs Why were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztecs so easily? Why were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztecs so easily? Superior weapons, European diseases, Aztec enemies helped the Spanish Superior weapons, European diseases, Aztec enemies helped the Spanish

3 Inca Empire Recap 1200 AD 1200 AD Inca settle along the Pacific Coast of S. America Inca settle along the Pacific Coast of S. America Accomplishments include: roads, terracing, aqueducts Accomplishments include: roads, terracing, aqueducts 1533 AD 1533 AD Francisco Pizarro defeats the Atahualpa & the Inca Francisco Pizarro defeats the Atahualpa & the Inca Forces the Inca to work on the encomiendas Forces the Inca to work on the encomiendas Spanish mission system Spanish mission system Natives die from starvation, European disease, overwork Natives die from starvation, European disease, overwork

4 Colonial Influence European Colonization European Colonization Spain wealthy enough to pay for exploration Spain wealthy enough to pay for exploration Gold, God, Glory Gold, God, Glory 1494 AD 1494 AD Treaty of Tordesillas signed Treaty of Tordesillas signed Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Tordesillas Signed between Spain and Portugal Signed between Spain and Portugal Set the Line of Demarcation Set the Line of Demarcation Imaginary line at 50 degrees longitude. Imaginary line at 50 degrees longitude. Spain claimed land west of the line Spain claimed land west of the line Portugal claimed land east of the line Portugal claimed land east of the line This is why Brazil speaks Portuguese This is why Brazil speaks Portuguese

5 How was Latin America divided? Spain divided the territory into 2 provinces Spain divided the territory into 2 provinces New Spain (Mexico/Central America) New Spain (Mexico/Central America) Capital was Mexico City - Built on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Capital was Mexico City - Built on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Peru (South America) Peru (South America) Capital was Lima Capital was Lima Caribbean Islands were also colonized primarily by Spain... Caribbean Islands were also colonized primarily by Spain... The Netherlands (Dutch), France, England, and Denmark also colonized the Caribbean. The Netherlands (Dutch), France, England, and Denmark also colonized the Caribbean. Came in search of wealth and natural resources Came in search of wealth and natural resources

6 Was there a specific social structure in New Spain & Peru? Yes!!! Yes!!! Peninsulares Peninsulares Spanish colonists directly from Spain Spanish colonists directly from Spain Criollos Criollos Spanish colonists born in the colony whose ancestors were born in Spain Spanish colonists born in the colony whose ancestors were born in Spain Mestizos Mestizos People of Native American and Spanish descent People of Native American and Spanish descent Native Americans Native Americans Slaves didn’t even make it on the list Slaves didn’t even make it on the list Do any other groups have a specific social structure? Do any other groups have a specific social structure? Peninsulares Criollos Mestizos Native Americans

7 Role of Native Americans Native Americans were captured and forced into slavery on large plantations Native Americans were captured and forced into slavery on large plantations Haciendas = large ranches or plantations Haciendas = large ranches or plantations This was called the encomienda system. This was called the encomienda system. Encomienda is a system of forced labor. Encomienda is a system of forced labor. Natives worked in return for protection. Natives worked in return for protection. Native Americans were not good slaves Native Americans were not good slaves They knew the land and found escape relatively easy They knew the land and found escape relatively easy However, many died from starvation, overwork & diseases. However, many died from starvation, overwork & diseases.

8 Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange 1500’s AD 1500’s AD Columbian exchange took place between the Americas and Europe. Columbian exchange took place between the Americas and Europe. Named after Christopher Columbus Named after Christopher Columbus Describes the exchange of crops, goods, animals and diseases between Europe and its colonies. Describes the exchange of crops, goods, animals and diseases between Europe and its colonies. Goods taken to Europe Goods taken to Europe Potatoes, beans, maize (corn), squash, pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers and chocolate Potatoes, beans, maize (corn), squash, pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers and chocolate Goods taken to the Americas Goods taken to the Americas Sugar cane, wheat, barley Sugar cane, wheat, barley Sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horses Sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horses Horses had a great impact on the natives, especially how they conducted war Horses had a great impact on the natives, especially how they conducted war Negative impact in the Americas = European disease Negative impact in the Americas = European disease Measles, influenza and smallpox Measles, influenza and smallpox

9 Triangular Trade Europe West Indies Africa Manufactured Goods Rum, Tobacco, Molasses & Cotton Rum, Tobacco & Gunpowder Slaves & Gold Slaves & Ivory “Middle Passage” “The Americas”

10 Impact of Columbian Exchange 3 major areas 3 major areas Decline of indigenous populations Decline of indigenous populations Natives lacked immunity to European diseases Natives lacked immunity to European diseases Between 1492 and 1650, 80% of Native Americans died from European diseases. Between 1492 and 1650, 80% of Native Americans died from European diseases. Agricultural Change Agricultural Change New foods brought to Europe and Latin America New foods brought to Europe and Latin America Introduction of the horse Introduction of the horse Brought from Europe Brought from Europe Used for transportation and labor Used for transportation and labor Helped Native Americans hunt Helped Native Americans hunt Main form of transportation until the early 20 th century Main form of transportation until the early 20 th century

11 Slave Trade 1510 AD 1510 AD First African slaves brought to the Caribbean & South America First African slaves brought to the Caribbean & South America Used to work on the sugar plantations and mine silver – required a HUGE & CHEAP workforce. Used to work on the sugar plantations and mine silver – required a HUGE & CHEAP workforce. Europeans introduced sugar cane to the West Indies. They then sent it back to Europe to be used as a popular sweetener. Europeans introduced sugar cane to the West Indies. They then sent it back to Europe to be used as a popular sweetener. Coffee was also introduced as a popular crop that required additional workers. Coffee was also introduced as a popular crop that required additional workers. The Brazilian coffee industry benefited greatly from the introduction of slavery. The Brazilian coffee industry benefited greatly from the introduction of slavery.

12 Slave Trade Natives were used as slaves first. Natives were used as slaves first. Many natives died from diseases such as the Many natives died from diseases such as the measles, malaria, and small pox. (50-75%) They also escaped easily... WHY? They also escaped easily... WHY? Europeans replaced the native slaves (who had died) Europeans replaced the native slaves (who had died) with Africans as slaves over time. WHY??? WHY??? Highly skilled farmers and metal workers Highly skilled farmers and metal workers Could handle the hot climate Could handle the hot climate Could not escape as easily Could not escape as easily More immune to disease More immune to disease African slaves also experienced horrible conditions similar to those of the natives. African slaves also experienced horrible conditions similar to those of the natives.

13 Slave Trade African slavery was extremely important in the development of South America & the Caribbean for the next 300 years. African slavery was extremely important in the development of South America & the Caribbean for the next 300 years. As the industries that required slaves grew... So did the number of slaves. As the industries that required slaves grew... So did the number of slaves. Slaves were required in order to help the plantations be successful. Slaves were required in order to help the plantations be successful. Brazil imported more slaves than any other country in the world. Brazil imported more slaves than any other country in the world. In the 1700’s, sugarcane production in Jamaica and modern Haiti surpassed Brazil. In the 1700’s, sugarcane production in Jamaica and modern Haiti surpassed Brazil. The Caribbean islands became VERY important to their colonial powers. WHY? The Caribbean islands became VERY important to their colonial powers. WHY? 9 out of 10 inhabitants in the Caribbean were slaves 9 out of 10 inhabitants in the Caribbean were slaves As the colonies gained their independence, so did the slaves. As the colonies gained their independence, so did the slaves. Most Caribbean people today are descendants from African slaves. Most Caribbean people today are descendants from African slaves. This continues to blend the ethnic groups within Latin America. This continues to blend the ethnic groups within Latin America.

14 What was the Spanish Mission system? System for Spain to defend its empire’s borders against other empires, such as Portugal, France, and Britain. System for Spain to defend its empire’s borders against other empires, such as Portugal, France, and Britain. Under this system... Under this system... Priests were to manage the haciendas and convert natives to Christianity. Priests were to manage the haciendas and convert natives to Christianity. Spread of the Spanish language and culture throughout Latin America. Spread of the Spanish language and culture throughout Latin America. Some natives converted quickly... Others rebelled against the Spanish. Some natives converted quickly... Others rebelled against the Spanish. Economically, the mission system was only successful in Mexico, but not in other parts of Latin America. Economically, the mission system was only successful in Mexico, but not in other parts of Latin America.

15 Impact of Colonization TODAY People and culture of Latin America are a blend of native and European customs. People and culture of Latin America are a blend of native and European customs. Language Language Major factor that links all the countries together and makes it a cultural region. Major factor that links all the countries together and makes it a cultural region. Spanish is the predominate language... WHY? Spanish is the predominate language... WHY? Because most of the countries were established by Spain Because most of the countries were established by Spain Brazil speaks Portuguese... WHY? Brazil speaks Portuguese... WHY? Some indigenous languages still exist in isolated areas Some indigenous languages still exist in isolated areas How do you think early setters and natives communicated with each other? How do you think early setters and natives communicated with each other? Ethnic Groups – started to blend together. Ethnic Groups – started to blend together. Mestizos – Native American and European Mestizos – Native American and European Mulattos – Africans and Europeans Mulattos – Africans and Europeans Religion Religion Major religion is Catholicism – brought by the Europeans Major religion is Catholicism – brought by the Europeans Replaced the practice of idol worship and human sacrifice Replaced the practice of idol worship and human sacrifice

16 Independence Movements Haiti, Mexico & South America

17 What world events influenced the Latin American independence movements? Late 1700’s - American Revolution & French Revolution Late 1700’s - American Revolution & French Revolution Early 1800’s - Colonists in Latin America were tired of watching Spain and Portugal gain riches at their expense. Early 1800’s - Colonists in Latin America were tired of watching Spain and Portugal gain riches at their expense. Became disgruntled & saw others in other countries rebel against monarchs and win! Became disgruntled & saw others in other countries rebel against monarchs and win! Led by criollos, who were wealthy but had no political power because they had not been born in Spain Led by criollos, who were wealthy but had no political power because they had not been born in Spain

18 Caribbean Independence Movement - Haiti Haiti was a French colony known as St. Domingue The French brought African slaves to work on the HUGE sugar cane and coffee plantations 1789 – Slaves were given freedom after the French Revolution... HOWEVER, in 1791 they changed their minds. How would this make you feel? In 1791, Haiti became the only country in the Americas to have a successful slave revolt – thousands of slaves Tired of working long hours under terrible conditions. Killed thousands of colonists and burned the land. Toussaint L’Ouverture helped to banish slavery on the island. He was a former slave... But educated – the slaves were freed... But now had to fight the Spanish and British who were trying to take over the island.

19 1799- Toussaint controlled the country and named himself dictator for life. Began to rebuild the country... Set up a constitution, guaranteed decent wages, housing and medical care for the people. French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was insulted by Toussaints’s declaration that he was dictator for life... He sent the army to retake the colony. Toussaint was captured and died in a French prison – French gave up the island because many soldiers died from yellow fever 1804 – Gained their complete independence! Haiti was the first Latin American country to break free from Imperialism. However, they have lived under harsh dictators and are the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.

20 Mexican Independence Movement Spanish ruled Mexico Spanish ruled Mexico Early 1800’s Early 1800’s Many Mexican leaders began to call for Many Mexican leaders began to call for independence from Spain Miguel Hidalgo: Miguel Hidalgo: A criollo priest (Catholic) A criollo priest (Catholic) Why would the criollos be most likely to lead the revolution? Why would the criollos be most likely to lead the revolution? Led revolution movement in Mexico Led revolution movement in Mexico He believed in social reform – change for the better in society He believed in social reform – change for the better in society Slaves should be freed Slaves should be freed Land held by Spain should be returned to Mexican farmers Land held by Spain should be returned to Mexican farmers Spain should stop taxing Mexican citizens so heavily Spain should stop taxing Mexican citizens so heavily

21 1808 – France invaded Spain... Spain’s government was in distress 1808 – France invaded Spain... Spain’s government was in distress Father Hidalgo seized the moment!!! Father Hidalgo seized the moment!!! Father Hidalgo gave a speech on September 16, 1810 known as the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”) Father Hidalgo gave a speech on September 16, 1810 known as the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”) (Mexico’s independence day is celebrated on the anniversary of this speech!) (Mexico’s independence day is celebrated on the anniversary of this speech!) He urged the Mexican people to rebel against Spanish rule He urged the Mexican people to rebel against Spanish rule Led a small group of protestors to Mexico City... By the time they arrived, the group had grown to 2,000 people. But they were NO match for the weapons of the government soldiers. Led a small group of protestors to Mexico City... By the time they arrived, the group had grown to 2,000 people. But they were NO match for the weapons of the government soldiers. Formed an army of 80,000 but lost more battles than he won Formed an army of 80,000 but lost more battles than he won Was captured and executed in 1811 for treason Was captured and executed in 1811 for treason Rebels continued fighting though – Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence”. Rebels continued fighting though – Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence” – The last of the Spanish troops left Mexico – The last of the Spanish troops left Mexico.

22 Spanish Control in S. America Spain Spain Ruled over most of S. America for 300 years Ruled over most of S. America for 300 years Spain grew enormously wealthy Spain grew enormously wealthy Colonists wanted to share in the political and economic wealth – decided to fight for independence Colonists wanted to share in the political and economic wealth – decided to fight for independence

23 South American Independence *HH Simon Bolivar – joins the independence movement Simon Bolivar – joins the independence movement Venezuelan criollo Venezuelan criollo Traveled to Spain and was convinced that Venezuela should be free from Spain’s control. Traveled to Spain and was convinced that Venezuela should be free from Spain’s control Bolivar fought for 15 years to liberate many countries in S. America. Bolivar fought for 15 years to liberate many countries in S. America. Became president of the republic of Gran Colombia Became president of the republic of Gran Colombia Modern Day – Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador Modern Day – Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador Liberated Peru and Bolivia... Added them to his republic. Liberated Peru and Bolivia... Added them to his republic. Nicknamed El Libertador Nicknamed El Libertador Also nicknamed the “George Washington of S. America” because of his battle to free much of S. America from Spanish control. Also nicknamed the “George Washington of S. America” because of his battle to free much of S. America from Spanish control. Bolivia was named after him. Bolivia was named after him. He died in 1830 from tuberculosis. He died in 1830 from tuberculosis.

24 Spanish Colonies in South America 1808 – 1830 AD 1808 – 1830 AD Most countries gain their independence Most countries gain their independence 1811 = Paraguay 1811 = Paraguay 1816 = Argentina 1816 = Argentina 1818 = Chile 1818 = Chile 1819 = Colombia 1819 = Colombia 1822 = Ecuador 1822 = Ecuador 1824 = Peru 1824 = Peru 1825 = Uruguay 1825 = Uruguay 1830 = Venezuela 1830 = Venezuela

25 Portuguese Colony in S. America Portugal Portugal Ruled over most of South America for 300 years Ruled over most of South America for 300 years 1822 AD 1822 AD Brazil gained its Independence without a major fight. Brazil gained its Independence without a major fight.


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