Presentation on theme: "Cities and Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Cities and Civilizations World History ASeminar #1Warm Up: Read pages in World History: Connections to Today and list the eight features of a civilization.
2Cities and Civilizations Seminar We begin at about 8,000 BCwhen village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as theNeolithic Revolution.NEW STONE AGE
3What is the REVOLUTION? A TOTALLY new way of living: FromHunter-Gatherersto AgricultureClick on words and pictures for web links.
4The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Agriculture (Farming)Growth of CitiesDivision of Labor (Specialization)TradeWriting and Mathematics
5GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations. Click on the map for an interactive website map of the four earliest river valley civilizations.
6Early River Valley Civilizations EnvironmentFlooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictableNo natural barriersLimited natural resources for making tools or buildingsSumerFlooding of the Nile predictableNile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villagesDeserts were natural barriersEgyptIndus ValleyIndus flooding unpredictableMonsoon windsMountains, deserts were natural barriersHuang He flooding unpredictableMountains, deserts natural barriersGeographically isolated from other ancient civilizationsChina
7Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley CivilizationsSumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.
8Find a similar map in e textbook. Define “Fertile Crescent.”
9Define “Fertile Crescent” A well-watered and fertile area,the fertile crescent arcs across the northern part of the Syrian desert. It is flanked on the west by the Mediterranean and on the east by the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and includes all or parts of Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. From antiquity this region was the site of sophisticated settlements.
10(Iraq) Greeks called the northern part of the Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia “Between Two Rivers”(Tigris River and Euphrates River)The southern part of Mesopotamia was called Babylonia, originally Sumer.Which country is Mesopotamia today?(Iraq)
11Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait) ca. 3500 to 3000 BC. (ca. = circa) Sumer gave us the city-state.Define: city-statePolitical unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Each city state has its own government, even when it shares a culture with neighboring city states.
12Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Click on the picture for more information about cuneiform.Click here to write like a Babylonian.Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.
13Sumerians invented: Brick technology Wheel Base 60 – using the circle degreesTime – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute12 month lunar calendararchrampziggurat
14Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.
15Babylon Define “rule of law” Gave us the first know written law code and was the first civilization where the citizens live by the “Rule of Law”Define “rule of law”Government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.
16Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BC Hammurabi’s Code was this law code. Hammurabi ruled the Babylonian Empire for 42 years. At the end of his longreign, Hammurabi’s legal decisions were collected and inscribed on a stone tabletin a Babylonian temple. The 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi represent one of the earliest known legal systems.For more information about Hammurabi’s Code, click here and on the picture.
17“If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death; also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put to death.”The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as “an eye for an eye.”
18EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” (Herodotus) Look at the map and answer the following question:What did Herodotus mean when he said that Egypt is the “gift of the Nile?”Nile RiverSahara DesertBecause of the geography of the area, without the Nile River, there would be no Egypt.
19Egyptians invented: Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry Advances in medicine and surgery
20HieroglyphicsEarly Egyptian writing found on tombs was indecipherable.HieroglyphicsSacred CarvingNo one could read these sacred carvings until Napoleon invaded Egypt and his archaeologists found the Rosetta Stone.Click on the picture to see your name in hieroglyphics.
21Video: Write a short summary of the finding, translation, and importance of the Rosetta Stone. For more information on the Rosetta Stone, log on to one of the following web sites.OR
22Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper. It is created from reeds growing along the Nile River.Papyrus
23Indus River Valley (page 53) 2500 BC – 1500 BC Around 2600 B.C. the various regional cultures were united in what is called the Indus Valley Civilization. It is also commonly referred to as the Harappan culture after the town of Harappa (where it was first discovered.)Click on the map for more information about ancient Indus River valley civilizations
24Excavations at the ancient Harappan and Mohenjo Daro mounds revealed well planned cities and towns built on massive mud brick platforms that protected the inhabitants against seasonal floods. In the larger cities the houses were built of baked brick while at smaller towns most houses were built of sun-dried mud brick. Each city is laid out in a grid pattern and shows signs of stunningly modern plumbing systems.Much writing has been found at these sites, but it has not yet been translated.
25Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BCLack of contact with foreigners helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They regarded their land as the only civilized land and called it Zhongguo or the Middle Kingdom. This Chinese isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was at the center of the earth and the sole source of civilization.Turn to the map on page 60. Note the geographic features which isolated China.
26The first true emperor of China, was Shi Huangdi. Turn to page 90.Shi Huangdi’s most remarkable achievement was the Great Wall.Click here for a panoramic tour of the Great Wall. Read the information under the pictures and send your teacher a postcard from one of the panoramic sites to show that you visited! Click on each picture here to see more information on Shi Huangdi and the Great Wall.