Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamian Civilization: Part 1 Begun 8/18/2014 Need more help? Email me or come to office hours- Wed. AM or Thur. PM."— Presentation transcript:
Mesopotamian Civilization: Part 1 Begun 8/18/2014 Need more help? me or come to office hours- Wed. AM or Thur. PM
What happened before Mesopotamian Civilization? * Paleolithic Age 2.5 million years ago 8000 B.C. *Neolithic 8000 B.C B.C.
Development of Ancient River Valley Civilizations ●aka = “Cradles of Civilization o 3500 BCE ●Rivers needed for irrigation of crops 1.Mesopotamia o –1.Tigris R. & Euphrates R. 2.Egypt o –1.Nile R. 3.India o –1.Indus R. 4.China o –1.Huang He
First Four River Valley Civilizations Cradles of Civilization
Nile River Mesopotamia Indus River
Nile River Mesopotamia Indus River Huang He
Nile River Mesopotamia Indus River Huang He Why are they called ‘Cradles of Civilization?’
Characteristics of Civilization ●Complex Social Institutions o Government Organized o Complex Religions Polytheistic ●Advanced Technology o Irrigation Systems o Engineering Palaces/Temples ●Division of Labor o Specialization of Labor o Artisans ●Calendar o Keep track of flooding & religious ceremonies ●Written Language o Keep records of agriculture/taxes
Mesopotamia Meso = Middle Po = River Tamia = Land Part of an area known as the Fertile Crescent
What is a city-state? ●Independent city surrounded by farmland ●Ruled by individual rulers
Farmland City Oldest cities in the World are thought to be Sumer’s. Farmland
What types of governments began during this time? Dynasties – * series of rulers from the same family *usually a Monarchy
Besides rulers, who ranked at the top of social classes? Priests – people believed they spoke with the gods.
What were the Sumerian temples? Ziggurats
What were the Sumerian temples? Ziggurats – ●temple & religious center ● stored grain ● housed priests
1. Known as a step pyramid 2. Emphasis(?) = altar at the top Actual Sumerian Ziggurat
Sumerian Ziggurat ca B.C.E. Mayan Pyramid ca. 700 C.E.
What inventions can be attributed to the Sumerians? wheel sail plow And….
The City And….
The most important invention?.... World’s first form of written language… Cuneiform
Examples Created using small wedge- shaped stylus on clay tablets
(1:08) Sumer (5:29)
The Epic of Gilgamesh * Oldest known written story *Follows the adventures of the Sumerian King of Uruk
Mesopotamian Civilization: Part 2 Need more help? me or come to office hours- Wed. AM or Thur. PM- Quiz Friday!
Essential Knowledge 13. What were the 1st 4 River Valley Civilizations? 14. What was the name of the earliest known civilization? 15. What is an independent city surrounded by farmland? 16. What is the earliest known written language?
What other civilizations came about during/after the Sumerians? 1.Akkadians 2.Babylonians 3.Phoenicians 4.Assyrians 5.Hebrews
Akkadians ●Greatest Leader = Sargon ●1st to create an Empire o conquered city-states of Sumer ●Lasted only 200 years o fighting within empire o famine
Sargon of Akkad – 1st Emperor
The Babylonians ●Overtook Sumerians ●Capital city = Babylon ●Greatest Ruler = Hammurabi ●Hammurabi’s greatest contribution = World’s first law code.
Hammurabi’s Law Code ●Specific punishments for specific actions ●Property issues ●Harsh punishments. ●Social classes punished/rewarded differently Think/raise/speak (30 seconds)- Is this fair? Why or why not?
Eye for an Eye mentality. Upper classes treated differently from lower classes
Essential Knowledge 17. Who was the World’s 1st Emperor? 18. Which Mesopotamian Civilization had Hammurabi as their greatest ruler? 19. What was Hammurabi’s greatest achievement? 20. True or False: All people were equal under Hammurabi’s Law Code?
Okay, Let’s Review!
What is the term for an independent city which is surrounded by farmland? A city-state
What was the first civilization to create cities? Sumer
What were some of the inventions of the Sumerians? 1. Plow 2. Umbrella 3. Wheel 4. Cities 5. Language
What was their written language called? Cuneiform
Who was the Akkadian leader who first created an empire? Sargon
What civilization created a great capital on the banks of the Euphrates? The Babylonians
What great Babylonian leader created the first law code? Hammurabi