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ESOL Workshop By Pamela Lorenzo Educational Specialist in TESOL

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1 ESOL Workshop By Pamela Lorenzo Educational Specialist in TESOL
Includes ESOL Strategies to meet Response to Intervention and the Sheltered Instruction (SIOP) Model By Pamela Lorenzo Educational Specialist in TESOL ESOL Instructor for Brevard County

2 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs) under Title III
Accountability for English Language Learners (ELLS) is required under NCLB as measured by annual performance targets that must be met by all Title III-funded Local Education Agencies (LEAs)

3 Cultural Riches Chart Puerto Rico China Mexico Music Language Food

4 Cultural Diversity 1. Student's native culture should be accepted and accommodated 2. The educational system should seek to expand and enrich the existing repertoire of teaching styles, instructional activities, and even administrative procedures to provide for the cultural diversity of students. In Brevard County there are 40 languages represented and in Florida there are 299 languages and 227,000 ESOL students.

5 Cultural Diversity 1. Useful components of the second culture should be taught Students should expand and enrich their repertoire of knowledge, skills, and behaviors, and extend their cultural competence Students should develop positive biculturalism

6 Standards for Effective Teaching and Learning
1. Joint Productive Activity: Teacher and Students Producing Together 2. Language Development: Developing Language Across the Curriculum 3. Making Meaning: Connecting School to Students’ Lives 4. Cognitive Challenge: Teaching Complex Thinking 5. Instructional Conversation: Teaching Through Conversation Echavarria, J. (1998). Teaching language minority students in elementary schools. The assessment of student’s language ability is an integral part of the lesson plan instruction. The instructional must be comprehensible and meet the needs of the student for listening, speaking, reading, and writin according to the CELLA scores, IPT Oral, and IRW reading and writing.

7 ESOL Strategies Teachers should use a variety of instructional methods whenever possible (including visual and manipulative) Never assume there is one best way to teach anything.

8 Communication BICS and CALP refer to a distinction introduced by Cummins (1979) between basic interpersonal communicative skills and cognitive academic language proficiency. The distinction draws attention to the very different time periods typically required by immigrant children to acquire conversational fluency in their second language as compared to grade-appropriate academic proficiency in that language. Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19, BICS usually takes 1-3 years and CALPS takes 5-7 years.

9 Parent Involvement Parents made recommendations for improving parent involvement in their school: 1. Changing the attitudes of school staff to “make the parent feel more welcome” 2. Taking parents’ interests into consideration when planning activities 3. Recognizing that even if parents cannot be present at school, helping their children at home is also a valuable contribution 4. Providing parents with knowledge about how to be involved in a range of involvement opportunities. Pena, Delores C. (2000)Parent Involvement: Influencing factors and implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 94 (1), pp Partnerships increase the motivation of students. When the students know that parents are involved in the school, the high expectations increase students performance.

10 What is the Response To Intervention Model?
1. Multiple tiers of evidence-based instruction service delivery 2. A problem-solving method designed to inform the development of interventions 3. An integrated data collection/assessment system to inform decisions at each tier of service delivery

11 What does Response to Intervention look like?
Teacher Place Time Strategy or Skill Material 1. 2. 3. 4.

12 How does Response to Intervention apply to the classroom?
1. Scientific research-based instruction is delivered by highly qualified personnel 2. Curriculum and instructional approaches must have a high probability of success for most students 3. Differentiate instruction to meet individual learning needs

13 Why is the Response to Intervention used?
1. Data are used to guide instructional decisions and to align curriculum and instruction to assessment data 2. To allocate resources 3. To drive professional development decisions 4. To create student growth trajectories to target and develop interventions

14 RTI Framework Tier 1 is the foundation and consists of scientific, research-based core instructional and behavioral methodologies, practices, and supports designed for all students in the general curriculum.

15 RTI Framework Tier 2 consists of supplemental instruction and interventions that are provided in addition to and in alignment with effective core instruction and behavioral supports to groups of targeted students who need additional instructional and/or behavioral support.

16 RTI Framework Tier 3 consists of intensive instructional or behavioral interventions provided in addition to and in alignment with effective core instruction with the goal of increasing an individual student’s rate of progress. Tier 3 interventions are developed for individual students using a problem-solving process.

17 Collaboration with Parents for RTI Model
Parent Involvement Meaningful and effective parental/family involvement is critical to student progress and required by both NCLB and IDEA. It is vital that parents be informed and involved at each step in the process. Regardless of whether the parent or the teacher initiated a concern, parent involvement should be facilitated throughout the process.

18 Define the problem by determining the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring. Ask, “What’s the problem?” 2. Analyze the problem using data to determine why the discrepancy is occurring. Ask, “Why is it taking place?” 3. Establish a student performance goal, develop an intervention plan to address the goal, and delineate how the student’s progress will be monitored and implementation integrity will be ensured. Ask, “What are we going to do about it?” 4. Use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention plan based on the student’s response to the intervention plan. Ask, “Is it working?” If not, how will the intervention plan be adjusted to better support the student’s progress? 1. Define the problem by determining the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring. Ask, “What’s the problem?”

19 What is the problem-solving method for RTI?
1. Define the problem by determining the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring. Ask, “What’s the problem?” 2. Analyze the problem using data to determine why the discrepancy is occurring. Ask, “Why is it taking place?” 3. Establish a student performance goal, develop an intervention plan to address the goal, and delineate how the student’s progress will be monitored and implementation integrity will be ensured. Ask, “What are we going to do about it?” 4. Use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention plan based on the student’s response to the intervention plan. Ask, “Is it working?” If not, how will the intervention plan be adjusted to better support the student’s progress?

20 Support Websites for RTI
Problem Solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) (http://floridarti.usf.edu/) Positive Behavior Support (PBS) (http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/) Student Support Services Project (http://sss.usf.edu/) Reading First (http://www.justreadflorida.com/reading_first.asp) Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) (http://www.fcrr.org) Florida Center for Research – Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (FCR-STEM) (http://www.fcrstem.org/center11.aspx)

21 Application of RTI to English Language Learners
A challenge facing educators is the difficulty in determining an English Language Learner’s (ELL) actual learning potential using standardized intelligence assessments and testing procedures. Educators often misinterpret ELL’s lack of full proficiency in English as low intelligence (Oller, 1991) or as a language or learning disability (Langdon, 1989). RtI models hold promise for preventing academic failure by providing support for culturally and linguistically diverse students within the general education environment. Ideally, this will decrease the number of ELLs who are inappropriately referred to and placed in special education (Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003).

22 ESOL Standards TESOL Standards. Goal statements for LEP students:
Use English to Communicate in social setting. Use English to achieve academically in all content areas. Use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways. Best educational practices emerge when the teachers understand and use both sets of standards to guide them in making decisions about curriculum and instruction. We have an obligation to provide evidence of our teaching and student learning.

23 Speaking Rubric at www.tesol.org Linguistic Complexity
Task Level Linguistic Complexity Vocabulary Usage Language Control Entering Single words, set phrases or chunks of memorized oral language Highest frequency vocabulary from school setting and content areas When using memorized language, is generally comprehensible; communication may be significantly impeded when going beyond the highly familiar Beginning Phrases, short oral sentences General language related to the content area; groping for vocabulary when going beyond the highly familiar is evident When using simple discourse, is generally comprehensible and fluent; communication may be impeded by groping for language structures or by phonological, syntactic or semantic errors when going beyond phrases and short, simple sentences Developing Simple and expanded oral sentences; responses show emerging complexity used to add detail General and some specific language content area; may grope for needed vocabulary at times When communicating in sentences, is generally comprehensible and fluent; communication may from time to time be impeded by groping for language structures or by phonological, syntactic or semantic errors, especially when attempting more complex oral discourse Expanding A variety of oral sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity; responses show emerging cohesion used to provide detail and clarity Specific and some technical language related to the content area; groping for needed vocabulary may be occasionally evident At all times generally comprehensible and fluent, though phonological, syntactic or semantic errors that don’t impede the overall meaning of the communication may appear at times; such errors may reflect first language interference Bridging A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in extended oral discourse; responses show cohesion and organization used to support main ideas Technical language facility with needed vocabulary is Approaching comparability to that of English proficient peers in terms of comprehensibility and fluency; errors don’t impede communication and may be typical of those an English proficient peer might make

24 Writing Rubric at www.tesol.org Linguistic Complexity
Task Level Linguistic Complexity Vocabulary Usage Language Control Reaching A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in a single tightly organized paragraph or in well-organized extended text; tight cohesion and organization Consistent use of just the right word in just the right place; precise Vocabulary Usage in general, specific or technical language. Has reached comparability to that of English proficient peers functioning at the “proficient” level in state-wide assessments. Bridging lengths of varying linguistic complexity in a single organized paragraph or in extended text; cohesion and organization Usage of technical language related to the content area; evident facility with needed vocabulary. Approaching comparability to that of English proficient peers; errors don’t impede comprehensibility. Expanding A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity; emerging cohesion used to provide detail and clarity. Usage of specific and some technical language related to the content area; lack of needed vocabulary may be occasionally evident. Generally comprehensible at all times, errors don’t impede the overall meaning; such errors may reflect first language interference. Developing Simple and expanded sentences that show emerging complexity used to provide detail. Usage of general and some specific language related to the content area; lack of needed vocabulary may be evident. Generally comprehensible when writing in sentences; comprehensibility may from time to time be impeded by errors when attempting to produce more complex text. Beginning Phrases and short sentences; varying amount of text may be copied or adapted; some attempt at organization may be evidenced. Usage of general language related to the content area; lack of vocabulary may be evident. Generally comprehensible when text is adapted from model or source text, or when original text is limited to simple text; comprehensibility may be often impeded by errors. Entering Single words, set phrases or chunks of simple language; varying amounts of text may be copied or adapted; adapted text contains original language. Usage of highest frequency vocabulary from school setting and content areas. Generally comprehensible when text is copied or adapted from model or source text; comprehensibility may be significantly impeded in original text.

25 Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Lesson Plan Checklist for SIOP The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) I. Preparation 1. Write content objectives clearly for students: 2. Write language objectives clearly for students: 3. Choose content concepts appropriate for age and educational background level of students. 4. Identify supplementary materials to use (graphs, models, visuals). 5. Adapt content (e.g., text, assignment) to all levels of student proficiency. List ideas for adaptation: 6. Plan meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts (e.g., surveys, letter writing, simulations, constructingmodels) with language practice opportunities for reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking (www.cal.org)

26 SIOP Model: Instruction
II. Instruction Building Background 7. Explicitly link concepts to students’ backgrounds and experiences 8. Explicitly link past learning and new concepts. 9. Emphasize key vocabulary (e.g., introduce, write, repeat, and highlight) for students. List key vocabulary (www.cal.org)

27 SIOP Model: Comprehensible Input
10. Use speech appropriate for students’ proficiency level (e.g., slower rate, enunciation, and simple sentence structure for beginners). 11. Explain academic tasks clearly. 12. Use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear (e.g., modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures, body language). (www.cal.org)

28 SIOP Model: Strategies
13. Provide ample opportunities for students to use strategies, (e.g., problem solving, predicting, organizing, summarizing,categorizing, evaluating, self-monitoring). 14. Use scaffolding techniques consistently (providing the right amount of support to move students from one level of understanding to a higher level) throughout lesson. 15. Use a variety of question types including those that promote higher-order thinking skills throughout the lesson (literal, analytical, and interpretive questions). (www.cal.org)

29 SIOP: Interaction Interaction
16. Provide frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion between teacher/student and among students about lessons concepts, and encourage elaborated responses. 17. Use group configurations that support language and content objectives of the lesson. List the grouping types: 18. Provide sufficient wait time for student responses consistently. 19. Give ample opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1 as needed with aide, peer, or L1 text

30 SIOP: Practice and Apply
Practice/Application 20. Provide hands-on materials and/or manipulatives for students to practice using new content knowledge. 21. Provide activities for students to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom. 22. Provide activities that integrate all language skills (i.e., reading, writing, listening, and speaking). (www.cal.org)

31 SIOP: Lesson Delivery Lesson Delivery
23. Support content objectives clearly. 24. Support language objectives clearly. 25. Engage students approximately % of the period (most students taking part and on task throughout the lesson). 26. Pace the lesson appropriately to the students’ ability level. (www.cal.org)

32 SIOP: Review and Evaluation
III. Review/Evaluation 27. Give a comprehensive review of key vocabulary. 28. Give a comprehensive review of key content concepts. 29. Provide feedback to students regularly on their output (e.g., language, content, work). 30. Conduct assessments of student comprehension and learning throughout lesson on all lesson objectives (spot checking, group response) (www.cal.org)


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