2 Instructional Decision Making Definition Integrates assessment and instruction within a multi‑level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems.Schools identify students in need of additional supports for learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence‑based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of the instruction depending on a student’s responsiveness.Common curriculum including standards and benchmarksFlexible groupings based on student needsDirect instructionRemember to include highly proficient students as well as struggling learners in this discussion.
3 Instructional Decision Making… Is NotIsAn instructional programA framework to implement effective practicesIntended to encourage placement of studentsMatching needs and resourcesPossible to implement aloneA collaborative effortThe same for every schoolUniquely designed for each buildingA special education, a general education, a Title 1, a Talented and Gifted initiativeAn “Every” Education InitiativeIn recent years in Iowa, we have talked a lot about the concepts of Data based decision making, improving instruction etc. What is different about IDM?Basically, IDM does not tell you what to think, it tells you what to think about. It is a framework.
4 Formula for Learning Targeted + Time = Learning Instruction Traditional School:Targeted Time = LearningInstructionConstant Constant Variable●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●IDM School:Targeted Time = LearningVariable Variable ConstantIn a traditional school:the instruction is targeted to all students– most curriculums target the middle of the population– and that instruction is constant.The amount of time in the school day is constant and the same amount of time is available to all students regardless of their leaning needs.The learning, then, is variable– some kids get it and some don’t. The learning varies across classrooms, buildings and districts.In an IDM school:The target instruction is variable– flexible grouping allows for variances in the instructional material that is used to teach the standards.Time is also variable because the flexible grouping allows for different students to have different amounts of time to learn conceptsAs a result of the variable instruction and time the student learning remains constant– which is the goal of increasing student achievement.DISCUSSION– HOW DOES THIS CONCEPT INFLUENCE HOW YOU TEACH?
5 The Research Behind IDM Effective Schools ResearchNationally = Response to Intervention (RTI)Same concepts organized into a systemic approachFocus on instruction and student outcomesMany schools have many of the critical elements present in their system - it becomesIn the National RTI models, there is a greater focus on “at-risk” learners/special ed. -The state of Iowa recognized the limited “focus” of some of the national models, and chose to rename it “IDM” which is an “all Kids” focus! :)RTI Cites availableEffective School Research
6 What is the Rationale for Instructional Decision Making? We need one process in our schools to make instructional decisions that are:EfficientProactiveBased on early interventionUsed to match resources to needsIntegratedFocused on student learningOur processes must be:Efficient: We need to organize our resources so that we don’t have to solve the same problem over and over on an individual basis.Proactive: we need to prevent problems whenever possible.Early Intervention: we need to get resources to student needs immediatelyMatch: We need to make sure that the strategies we select are directly related to the nature of student challenges. This is only now emerging in the literature. NCLB gave us “Research-based/evidence-based practices” but did not give us a way to match these to student needs. Chemotherapy is a validated medical treatment, but we don’t use it for the common cold. In the same way, we need to be sure that the strategies we use are applied directly to the type of student problem they were designed to address.Achievement focused: We have to evaluate EVERYTHING we do through the filter of student achievement data and be willing to change.
7 Benefits Of IDM IDM will help you to: Know immediately, “Is what we are doing working?”Know which students (high/low performing) need more/different instructionKnow what each student needsProvide structures to deliver what students needRaise student achievement
8 Guiding Principles of IDM ALL students are part of ONE proactive educational systemBelief that ALL students can learnUse ALL available resources to teachProactive approach uses data early to determine student needs and intervene.Reactive approach intervenes after students have shown a history of failure to meet expectations/or when learning “flat lines” due to lack of challenge.This proactive/preventative approach needs to be included as a guiding principle in order to accurately represent behavior.Instead of waiting for behaviors to escalate and reacting to them, we are going to try to set up the environment to prevent them in the first place. In addition, we are going to use data to quickly and proactively identify students in need and respond to those needs instead of waiting for behaviors to escalate.All children need the opportunity to learn.
9 Guiding Principles of IDM Use scientific, research-based/evidence-based instructionCurriculum and instructional approaches must have a high probability of success for most students.Use instructional time efficiently and effectively.
10 Guiding Principles of IDM Use instructionally relevant assessmentsReliable and validMultiple purposesScreening- Collecting data for the purpose of identifying low and high performing students at-risk for not having their needs metDiagnostic- Gathering information from multiple sources to determine why students are not benefiting from instructionFormative- Frequent, ongoing collection of information including both formal and informal data to guide instructionSummative assessment information can help us to look at overall student growth and help us to evaluate effectiveness of overall program inplementation.
11 Guiding Principles of IDM Use a problem-solving method to make decisions based on a continuum of students needsProvides strong core curriculum, instruction, assessment (core cycle)Provides increasing levels of support based on intensity of student needs.
12 Guiding Principles of IDM Data are used to guide instructional decisions.To match curriculum and instruction to assessment dataTo allocate resourcesTo drive professional development decisionsIt is critical to have data to support decisions at all levels.
13 Guiding Principles of IDM Quality professional development supports effective instruction for all students.Provide ongoing training and support to assimilate new knowledge and skillsAnticipate and be willing to meet the newly emerging needs based on student performanceTheory, demonstration, coaching, practice and feedback are all important pieces to supporting the framework of instructional decision making.
14 Guiding Principles of IDM Leadership is essentialStrong administrative support to ensure commitment and resourcesStrong teacher support to share in the common goal of improving instructionBuilding leadership team to build internal capacity and sustainability over timeReview slide information.
15 IDM System Evidenced based core instruction to prevent failure Universal screening to detect when student is behind and “at risk”.Evidenced based Supplemental Instruction provided & progress monitored.Intensive Individual Intervention provided and progress monitored.
16 Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Behavioral SystemsAcademic SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseThe same ideas we use for the systemic process of PBS– we also use for IDM.This diagram may be familiar to many people who have participated in the PBS trainings.Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactiveUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%80-90%16
17 IDM CYCLES: Core, Supplemental, Intensive CurriculumInstructionAssessmentsCoreSupplementalCore instruction is provided to all students.Supplemental instruction is provided to some students (in addition to core instruction).Intensive instruction is provided to few students (in addition to core instruction) who have more significant needs.Highly proficient students who have already mastered core curriculum may need instructional supports that extend beyond grade level core. Flexibility is essential because there may be holes in their learning (example: math vocabulary terms)– it is important to continually assess their mastery of the core concepts.Intensive
18 Grade Level Core intended taught assessed District Core The Pre-K continuum of standards and benchmarksintendedtaughtassessedGrade Level CoreStandards and benchmarks for a given grade level (within District Core)Strong enough to ensure that at least 80% of the students meetproficiency with differentiationGenerally received by all students at grade level:access to general education curriculumopportunity to demonstrate mastery of itDistrict CoreGrade LevelCoreEach student is part of the general education system and has the means to: 1) access to the general education curriculum or 2) demonstrates mastery of and receive an enriched/accelerated version of the curriculumStudents need to have access to general education curriculum or opportunity to demonstrate mastery of it.
19 Supplemental Cycle: Guidelines for Students who are Less than Proficient Is in addition to and aligns with the district core cycleUses more explicit instructionProvides more intensityAdditional modeling and guided feedbackImmediacy of feedbackDoes NOT replace coreCoreSupplemental instruction is provided in addition to and aligns with the district core cycleSupplemental usually involves more explicit instruction, provides more intense instruction, provides additional modeling and guided feedback– more immediate feedback.Does NOT replace coreSupplemental
20 Supplemental Cycle: Guidelines for Students who are Highly Proficient Enriches core instruction/contentAccelerates core instruction/contentAccelerate pace of coreGroups within, across and/or outside the classroomProvides greater complexity and abstractionCoreSmall flexible instruction within the classroom - using higher level questioning, taking a skill to the next level.Enrichment: NOT busywork, irrelevant academic enrichment - enrichment not directly related to content of classroom an don't related to talent area.Cultural enrichment: not relevant to talent area but has cultural merit. Attending a theatrical performanceRelevant academic : exposure to special topics in specific talent area: gifted math kid having a unit on Fibonacci numbers: 1, 2,3,5,8,13 peddles on flower, seed pattern in sunflowers, pine coneSupplemental
21 Students who are Highly Proficient Grade level expectations can create too low a ceilingAn “A” can be a barrier, not a rewardGrade Level ExpectationsStudents that are proficient may expand beyond grade level expectations..True formative assessment and feedback can provide the necessary data to make good instructional decisions.Building student’s metacognition skills can be an important part of this process.
22 Intensive Cycle Guidelines Must be designed to match identified needsShould always be based on diagnostic student dataProvided in small groups or individuallyOn-going data determines need to continue, discontinue, or change curriculum, instruction, and/or assessmentIntensive instruction must be designed to match identified needs and should always be based on diagnostic student data.Intensive instruction is provided in small groups or individually.On-going data collection and analysis determines the need to continue, discontinue, or change curriculum, instruction, and/or assessment. This may include a convergence of data sources.Intensive
23 Intensive Cycle: Students who are Less than Proficient In addition to and aligns with the district core cycle but may extend beyond grade level coreUses diagnostic data to more precisely target to student needSmaller instructional groupsMore instructional timeMore detailed modeling and demonstration of skillMore extensive opportunities for guided practiceMore opportunities for error correction and feedbackIntensive instruction may need to extend beyond grade level core to include previous grade level core concepts that were not mastered
24 Intensive Cycle for Students that are Highly Proficient Often replaces/out reaches the “grade level” coreFalls within “district” coreAdvanced levels of curriculum,enrichment/accelerationWhole grade or single subject acceleration.May not be considered intensive for the student, but may be considered intensive for the system.A third grade student who has mastered a majority of 3, and 4th grade outcomes/skills Give students the opportunity to think at higher levels with different kinds of text. Build on skills they have.Higher levels of prior knowledgeMore rapid pace of learningDeeper level of conceptual of understandingGreater capacity for complexity and abstractionGreater capacity to make connections within and across disciplines
25 Framework Questions 1. Is our core cycle sufficient? 2. If the core is not sufficient, why not?3. How will needs identified in core be addressed?4. How will the sufficiency and effectiveness of the core cycle be monitored over time?5. Have improvements to the core been effective?6. For which students is the core cycle sufficient and not sufficient, and why?7. What specific supplemental and intensive instruction/curriculum is needed?8. How will specific supplemental and intensive cycles be implemented?9. How will the effectiveness of supplemental and intensive cycles be monitored?10. Which students need to move to a different cycle?The IDM Process is ongoing, and is a long-term commitment. It will also vary in every school and from year to year depending on the unique characteristics of that school. For example, if your school has a high turnover in staff each year there will need to be more attention paid to ongoing consensus building with new staff. On the other hand, if through the process you find that you need to make some big changes to the instructional practices in your building, more time may need to be spent on building teacher skills for quality implementation.For long-term processes: Think about and plan for sustainabilityIDM is not a ‘flash in the pan’ initiativeThis is about changing the culture of your schoolThis should become the way you do business at your schoolBuilding leadership teams are vital for sustainability.
26 IDM SystemResult=Instructional needs are based on assessment data (performance) and the instruction is designed to address the skill deficit.Because progress is monitored frequently, the instruction is altered when necessary to meet the student’s changing needs.Instructional needs are based on assessment data (performance) and the instruction is designed to address the skill deficit.Because progress is monitored frequently, the instruction is altered to meet the student’s changing needs. (Formative assessment).We do not wait an entire school year to see how the student is doing (ITBS scores).
27 IDM SystemThe best way to determine if students can learn normally is to teach them and look at their response to the instruction.The only way to determine if student can learn normally is to teach and look at student’s response s response to the instruction.--- And make adjustments to the instruction as we need---THIS WORKS FOR GROUPS OF STUDENTS AS WELL AS INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS.
28 Just a thought… Microscope— Student v. Instruction It we put the student under the microscope– we have little opportunity to change any of the things we find…If we put the instruction under the microscope– we can change and control what we do which can have an effect on the student learning… the learning is constant because the instruction is variable.When problems exist with core and/or supplemental curriculum… how can we say the problem is within the child?If the student hasn’t been taught or has not received instruction matched to his/her needs, and he/she doesn’t learn, it is wrong to say the student has the problem.
29 Myth BustersIDM is a short term commitment that you will implement once.False!Just like the CSIP and IPDM are continuous process models….IDM is never complete. It is a continuous process that is intended to be fluid, flexible and non-linear.
30 IDM is a FrameworkIDM process becomes part of the structure of the school.IDM is about continuous improvement.It becomes “the way we do business”.IDM is not another thing we have to do…Once an IDM framework is established, it will become part of the structure of your school like PBS.IDM is about continuous improvementThe cycle is repeated throughout the school year every yearIt becomes “the way we do business”.The IDM model is based on the proactive concept of early intervention and matches the amount of resources to the nature of the student’s needs.IDM is a proactive response to addressing student needs.Student concerns come from analysis of data, not “gut level” impressions.Data is used to match resources to student needs.IDM is an efficient process for:Gathering useful student dataDetermining which students are “at risk”Designing/implementing instruction
31 Myth BustersIf a student needs to have supplemental instruction you have to go someplace or get someone else to provide it.FALSE!A seamless system emphasizes shared responsibility for the students within a school and blends the various resources, programs, and services as instruction is developed for students with similar instructional needs. This is done with collaboration and communication across classrooms, grade levels, and with parents and administrators. IDM is a general education model and the needed instruction for student achievement is the responsibility of the classroom teacher.So depending on the systems available resources, it may look different in each building. Therefore, a model with the flexibility to be applicable across multiple settings and content areas is necessary. IDM can meet the challenge.Our job is to help schools identify their available resources and how to use them efficiently and effectively meet student needs.
32 Delivery of Instruction IDM framework: resources are organized, system is in place to provide instruction (at all 3 tiers)Supplemental instruction can be provided in the general classroom by the general education teacherIDM addresses the unique needs in every building.If the framework is in place to support the system and process, supplemental instruction can be provided in the general classroom by the general education teacher–IDM framework: organized resources to provide supplemental and intensive instructionLooks different in school because it depends on the unique needs of your building.
33 Myth BustersIDM is just like past practices of tracking or ability grouping.FALSE!Past practices of ability grouping and tracking are based on “ability levels” and summative data.IDM identifies student’s skill deficit areas, applies appropriate instructional strategies to improve skill performance and uses formative data to make decisions about the effects of the instruction and needed next steps.NOT THE SAME!!!
34 IDM is About Flexible Grouping ALL students receive core instruction.Skill-building groups are formedBased on student achievement data (formative assessment).Groups change to meet student needs. (flexible grouping).Tracking and ability grouping was different because– students were tracked into a group– forever or at least very long periods of time.Flexible grouping is a very different process of providing instruction…Data is used to make decisions about the groups and about when to move students out of groups.ALL students receive core instruction based on the same set of standards and benchmarks.Skill-building groups are formed based on student achievement data and are constantly changing to meet student needs. (Flexible grouping).Within the cycles of instruction, student performance data are the primary resource for decision making.
35 Myth BustersStudents receiving intensive instruction are staffed into special ed. after collecting 9 data points.False!STANDARD TREATMENT INTERVENTIONS.Part of the system…
36 The 9-Data Point MythResearch-based best practice suggests that 7 to 9 data points are necessary in order to rule out chance.Research-based best practice suggests that 7 to 9 data points are necessary in order to rule out chance.This means that when an instructional intervention is being used with a student, it takes a minimum of 7 to 9 data points – collected over at least 6 weeks- to be certain that the effects of that intervention are happening as the result of the instruction and not by chance.The 9 data point myth came out of this misinterpretation of the information.
37 IDM: Making it happen… Resources Commitment to the process. Professional development.Instructional StrategiesData ToolsSupport personnel.ResourcesWe believe in this process and the framework of IDM.We have read and scrutinized the research, and we believe we have developed the best possible plan to meet the instructional needs of all students and increase student achievement across our district.In order to have success with this process, we need to:The implementation of instructional decision making requires that the staff commit to implement the process with integrity.It is imperative that the educators believe that all children can learn.Quality professional development is essential to support implementation of a systemic effort to support IDM.Teachers need to have adequate tools, strategies, support, and resources to meet the needs of all students.Resources include existing resources already in the building/district… be creative in how these resources can be used differently.Instructional scheduling throughout the course of the school day could be another kind of creative resource.THIS POWERPOINT PRESENTATION IS AN OVERVIEW OF THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRACTICE OF AN IDM FRAMEWORK. AT THIS POINT IN THE PRESENTATION, IT WOULD BE A GOOD TIME TO ADD SITUATION SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OR DISCUSSIONS THAT ARE RELEVANT TO YOUR AUDIENCE.