Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention (RtI) in Primary Grades"— Presentation transcript:
1Response to Intervention (RtI) in Primary Grades Jana JonesJuly 2009
2What is RtI Response to Intervention (RtI) is the practice of: providing high quality instruction and interventions matched to student need;monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction; andapplying student response data to important educational decisions.
3High Quality Instruction and Intervention Instruction or interventions matched to student needsDemonstrated through scientific research and practiceTo produce high learning rates for most students.Selection of scientifically researched based interventions increases probability of positive student results.Interventions are selected based on each individual students response.
4Monitoring Progress Frequently Monitor learning rate (students individual growth in achievement competencies over time)Monitor level of performance (students standing of performance compared to expected performance)
5Important Educational Decisions Decisions regarding the use of more or less intense interventions are made using information individual student learning rate and performance level.This includes decisions about eligibility for special education.Decisions are made based on student responsiveness to the instruction/intervention.Instruction/Interventions intensity changes based on student performance
6Purpose of RtI Prevention Intervention Determination of learning disabilitiesPrevention – Ensure that any problems student s may be experiencing are not related to ineffective teaching practices.Intervention – Instruction designed to meet the needs of student, providing support in small group, regular classroom, or elsewhereDetermination of Learning Disability – Using data gathered through progress monitoring over an extended period , students eligibility as a student with a learning disability can be determined – must meet state criteria if this process is used.
7Core Principles of RtI Effectively teach all students Intervene early Use a multi-tier model of service deliveryUse a problem-solving method to make decisions within the multi-tier modelUse research based, scientifically validated interventions/instructionMonitor student progressUse data to make instructional decisionsUse assessment for screening, diagnostic and progress monitoring purposes
8Three Tiered ModelTier one is primary instruction – grade level material taught to all students.Tier-2 is designed to provide that additional support (Instructional time) and may need to be provided to 15% of the student population.Tier 3 - Depending on the degree of deficit and the number of skills that need to be remediated some students may need even more time for instruction.
9Three Tier Model Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 All students Preventive, ProactiveTier 2Some students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseTier 3Individual studentsAssessment basedHigh intensity of longer duration
10How to Implement RtIThe Institute of Education Sciences offers five concrete recommendations with strategies for helping elementary schools implement an RtI framework to ensure that all students in the primary grades learn to read.
11How to Implement RtIScreen all students for potential reading problems at the beginning of the year and again in the middle of the year.Provide differentiated reading instruction for all students based on assessments of students’ current reading levels (tier 1).Provide intensive, systematic instruction on up to three foundational reading skills in small groups to students who score below the benchmark score on universal screening. (tier 2).Monitor the progress of tier 2 students at least once a month. Use these data to determine whether students still require intervention. For those students still making insufficient progress, schoolwide teams should design a tier 3 intervention plan.Provide intensive instruction on a daily basis that promotes the development of the various components of reading proficiency to students who show minimal progress after reasonable time in tier 2 small group instruction (tier 3).
121. Screen all studentsCreate a building-level team to facilitate the implementation of universal screening and progress monitoring.Select a set of efficient screening measures that identify children at risk for poor reading outcomes with reasonable degrees of accuracy.Use benchmarks or growth rates (or a combination of the two) to identify children at low, moderate, or high risk for developing reading difficulties.15
13Universal ScreeningUniversal screening is a critical first step in identifying students who are at risk for experiencing reading difficulties and who might need more instruction.Screening should take place at the beginning of each school year in kindergarten through grade 2.Schools should use measures that are efficient, reliable, and reasonably valid.See Handout 1
142. Provide differentiated reading instruction for all students – Tier 1 Provide training for teachers on how to collect and interpret student data on reading efficiently and reliably.Develop data-driven decision rules for providing differentiated instruction to students at varied reading proficiency levels for part of the day.Differentiate instruction—including varying time, content, and degree of support and scaffolding—based on students’ assessed skills.
15Differentiated Instruction Differentiated instruction occurs in tier 1. For example, during independent work time, students weak in vocabulary can practice vocabulary with a partner or in small groupsDifferentiated instruction applies to all students, while tier 2 instruction applies only to those students at risk in key areas.
163. Provide intensive, systematic instruction Tier 2 Use a curriculum that addresses the components of reading instruction (comprehension, fluency, phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary) and relates to students’ needs and developmental levels.Implement this program three to five times a week, for approximately 20 to 40 minutes.Build skills gradually and provide a high level of teacher-student interaction with opportunities for practice and feedback.
17Tier 1 InstructionTier 2 instruction should take place in small homogenous groups ranging from three to four students using curricula that address the major components of reading instructionThe areas of instruction should be based on the results of students’ scores on universal screening.Instruction should be explicit (increased teacher/student interaction) and intensive (3-5 time/week for 20 to 40 minutes)
184. Monitor the progressMonitor progress of tier 2 students on a regular basis using grade appropriate measures. Progress monitoring should occur at least eight times during the school year.While providing tier 2 instruction, use progress monitoring data to identify students needing additional instruction.Consider using progress monitoring data to regroup tier 2 students approximately every six weeks.
19Progress monitoringSchools should establish a schedule to assess tier 2 students at least monthly—reassigning students who have met benchmarks,Graphing students’ progress in reading in a reliable fashion, andRegrouping students who need continued instructional support.See Handout 2
205. Provide intensive instruction on a daily basis Tier 3 Implement concentrated instruction that is focused on a small but targeted set of reading skills.Adjust the overall lesson pace.Schedule multiple and extended instructional sessions daily.Include opportunities for extensive practice and high-quality feedback with one-on-one instruction.Plan and individualize tier 3 instruction using input from a school-based RtI team.Ensure that tier 3 students master a reading skill or strategy before moving on.
21Tier 3 InstructionInstruction should be intensified by focusing on fewer high priority reading skills during lessons and scheduling multiple and extended instructional sessions.One-on-one or small group instruction also provides intensity as students have more opportunities to practice and respond.One-on-one instruction includesgiving students feedback based on their individual responses,teaching students to mastery based on individual learning progress, andplanning instruction with materials and an instructional sequence that meets individual student needs.
22Other Implementation Considerations Managing changeConduct a self assessmentEstablish the focus and a RtI implementation plan for the schoolProvide professional developmentEnsure there is integrity in the use of Standards/Curriculum by all teachersSee Handouts 3 and 4
23RtI“Designing, implementing and sustaining effective reading programs is everybody’s business.”Diamond, 2006