Presentation on theme: "Two factors that affect the rate at which a population grows are natural increase and net migration. (a)Explain what natural increase is. Natural Increase."— Presentation transcript:
Two factors that affect the rate at which a population grows are natural increase and net migration. (a)Explain what natural increase is. Natural Increase is the number of births in the country minus the number of deaths in any one year. It does not give consideration to the number of people who emigrate or immigrate.
Examine the multi-line graph below and answer questions (b), (c), and (d) that follow. (b)Which year experienced the highest natural increase? 1990
Examine the multi-line graph below and answer questions (b), (c), and (d) that follow. (c)How many years have experienced a negative net migration since 1982? 9
(d)(i)Which factor has the greatest influence on population change: natural increase OR net migration? Give ONE reason for your answer to (d) (i) with evidence from the graph. Net Migration. The Total Population change varies as the Net Migration line varies and the Natural Increase is almost constant, always between 25,000 and 30,000.
(a)Shade and label on the map of New Zealand: (i)the THREE regions projected to experience the highest rates of growth between 1996 and 2021. (ii)the THREE regions projected to experience the lowest rates of growth (decrease).
Table 1: Percentage of New Zealand population born overseas Census Year % of New Zealand population born overseas 200119.0% 199617.5% 199115.8% (a)Write a generalisation from Table 1 about changes in New Zealand’s population. The percentage of the NZ population born overseas increased between 1991 and 2001 by 2.2%.
Table 2: Birthplace of New Zealand citizens born overseas – 1991 and 2001 Origin19912001 United Kingdom45.7%32.5% Pacific Islands18.2%17.0% North-East Asia3.8%12.8% Southern Africa1.7% 5.2% North America2.8%3.0% (b)Name the origin of the TWO groups in Table 2 that show the greatest increase between 1991 and 2001. (1) North East Asia (2) Southern Africa
(c)Describe ONE social advantage and ONE social disadvantage of an increasingly multicultural population. Social advantage: Greater understanding of different cultures, cultural activities e.g. festivals, music, dance, and different cuisines. Social disadvantage: Growing racism, racial tension, negativity or even segregation as numbers of migrants from certain countries increase.
The Pyramid with the:Age / Sex Pyramid A, B, or C highest birth rate A highest life expectancy C highest median age C highest youthful dependency A
(b)Identify THREE changes to New Zealand’s population structure shown on the age / sex pyramids. You must provide evidence of each change from the pyramids. Change: Ageing Population. Death rates have declined because of improvements in sanitation, health and medical services. Birth rates have declined because of improved access to contraception, women’s increased access to education, women’s increased status in the work place and people’s changing attitude to the number of children they want. People are now more likely to view large families as an economic burden rather than an economic asset. Ageing population has also been caused by the post World War II baby boomers. Evidence: In 1901, less than 10% of population was over 60 years, while for 2101 it is predicted that over 40% of the population will be over 60. In 1901 there were virtually no people over 90, while for 2101 over 6% of the population is predicted to be over 90.
(b)Identify THREE changes to New Zealand’s population structure shown on the age / sex pyramids. You must provide evidence of each change from the pyramids. Change: Decrease in youthful dependency. There has been a decline in the birth rate because of improved access to contraception, women’s increased access to education, women’s increased status in the work place and people’s changing attitude to the number of children they want. People are now more likely to view large families as an economic burden rather than an economic asset. The decrease in youthful dependency is also because the death rate has declined and life expectancy has increased. This is due to improvements in sanitation, health and medical services. Evidence: In 1901 over 35% of the population was under the age of 15, while for 2101 it is predicted that only 13% of the population will be under the age of 15.
(b)Identify THREE changes to New Zealand’s population structure shown on the age / sex pyramids. You must provide evidence of each change from the pyramids. Change: Increase in the percentage of females. This is because in 1901 NZ still had high immigration rates. These immigrants were coming to a frontier society and were therefore mostly male. Over the next 50 years the gender ratio became more balanced, although from the mid C20th women have had a higher life expectancy than men. This may be because women are more likely to see a doctor if unwell, have better diets or possibly deal better with stress. Also males in the 15 - 30 age range have a much higher rate of accidental death than any other group in society. Evidence: In 1901 the percentage of males, especially over 30, was noticeably larger than that of females, while in 2101 it is predicted that there will be more females than males, especially over 70 years of age.
(a)Name ONE sparsely populated area shown on the map above. Southern Alps/South Island High Country Volcanic Plateau North Island Western Hill Country East Coast region. (b)Name ONE physical factor that explains why this area is sparsely populated. Harsh climate; infertile soils; steep slopes; isolation; inaccessibility; harsh winter temperatures; easily eroded land. (c)Name ONE cultural factor that explains why this area is sparsely populated. Lack of jobs; lack of large cities; few access roads; large farms.
(d) With the use of diagrams, explain how TWO physical factors have influenced New Zealand’s population distribution. Your answer must make specific reference to New Zealand. Physical Factor One: Areas with steep slopes have low population densities because they are unsuitable for intensive land uses such as horticulture or dairy farming. In the South Island High Country horticulture farmers cannot use machinery, while cows use too much energy walking on hills. Milk production therefore decreases and livestock management is difficult. Farmers on the Canterbury Plains can use machinery and manage livestock easily, so more people live in these areas. Physical Factor Two: Farmers find it difficult to farm intensively in areas with a harsh climate, in particular where there are cold temperatures in winter. In the South Island High Country, grass does not grow when average temperatures are below 8o, so cows could not graze outside. Crops such as apples are also difficult to grow in cold temperatures. In the north of the country e.g. Auckland the average temperature is warmer e.g. 11o in winter, so cows can graze and there is a longer growing season.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend: Northward Drift Description: Growing proportion of people living in the North Island. Reason: More intensive agriculture eg Waikato, better job opportunities in cities such as Auckland and Wellington, and warmer climates in places such as Tauranga and the Kapiti Coast have attracted people to the North.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend: Rural Urban Drift / Rural Depopulation Description: People moving from rural to urban areas. Reason: Better job opportunities, greater access to services e.g. schools and hospitals and more entertainment and social activities in cities such as Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Mechanisation and farm amalgamation have decreased employment prospects in rural areas, causing people to leave rural areas. The privatisation in the 1980s and 1990s caused many services and amenities in rural areas e.g. banks, post offices, hospitals, railways to close.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend: Urbanisation Description: Growing proportion of people living in urban areas. Reason: Population of cities growing faster than that in rural areas due to migration of people into cities. People move because of better job opportunities, greater access to services e.g. schools, hospitals, more entertainment and social activities in cities such as Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Mechanisation and farm amalgamation have decreased employment prospects in rural areas. International migrants are more likely to live in the larger cities with international airports, where they originally land in New Zealand.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend” Suburban Sprawl Description: Growth outwards of cities onto surrounding farmlands. Reason: As more people move to cities, growth of housing to accommodate these new people occurs at the edges of cities in new suburbs developed on farm land surrounding the cities e.g. the Albany Basin and Flat Bush areas on the edge of Auckland.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend” Stepwise Migration Description: Migration to a large city e.g. Wellington takes place in a series of steps, involving first a migration from a rural area to a smaller rural centre e.g. Palmerstone North and then to the larger city. Reason: People migrate in steps because of proximity. Often people will move from a rural area or small town to a settlement that is larger than where they live because it is close to where they originated. They are more familiar with this town and it is more likely they will have family or friends there. Eventually they move to progressively larger towns and cities.
Name and describe TWO internal migration trends. Give a reason for each. Trend” Movement Within Cities Description: People move residence within cities. Traditionally this movement has been outwards, to new suburbs at the edge of towns, although since the 1970s there has been some movement of people back to the centre of cities. Reason: As cities grow in size new suburbs are developed at the edge of cities because of available space for expansion. This process is occurring in Auckland, where suburbs like Albany and Flat Bush have grown at the edge of the city. Since the 1907s people have started moving back into the centre of cities, often as a way to avoid lengthy commuting or traffic or to take advantage of the entertainment close at hand. Inner city suburbs such as Ponsonby in Auckland and apartment living have increased dramatically as a result.
New Zealand has an ageing population structure. Write paragraphs to discuss the: 1.) reasons for New Zealand’s ageing population Specific reference to a named case study must be made. NZ has an ageing population. This means that the proportion of people who are over 60 is increasing, from 4% in 1901 to 12% in 1999. There are several factors which have caused this. Since the late 1880s NZ has had a lowering death rate. Improvements in medical and health practices, improved sanitation e.g. effluent disposal and safe running water have caused the death rate to drop from 40 per 1,000 in 1880 to 17 per 1,000 in 2001. These effects have been felt most significantly in the two most at risk groups: the young and elderly. Infant mortality (the death rate of babies under 1) has declined, while life expectancy (the average to which people would be expected to live at birth) has increased to 81 for women and 76 for men in 2001, up from 72 and 66 in 1952. At the same time NZ’s birth rate has declined from 38 per 1,000 in 1880 to 16 per 1,000 in 2001. This change has happened because of improved knowledge and wider availability of family planning and birth control, improved employment and educational opportunities for women (so women are having their first child at 30 rather than 22) and a changing perception of children as a burden to an improved living standard rather than an economic asset. The other significant cause is the post WWII baby boom which saw a temporary increase in the birth rate from 1945 until 1960 following the return of servicemen. The baby boomers (the people born during the period) are now getting older.
New Zealand has an ageing population structure. Write paragraphs to discuss the: 2.) issues and consequences Specific reference to a named case study must be made. There are several issues associated with an ageing population. The smaller working age population will be forced to support a growing elderly dependent population. One of the major issues is the cost of providing specialist facilities and medical care for the elderly e.g. retirement homes, rehabilitation centres. Such facilities may be expensive and due to rising life expectancy the care provided may be needed for many years. Also, elderly people suffering from illnesses may become a burden to their families. There are problems with the underuse of resources that may have been provided in the past for the declining younger groups e.g. schools may need to be closed. Another problem will occur when the baby boomers reach retirement and the cost of providing superannuation may become a burden for the country. The problem may worsen in the future since if ageing continues NZ may have problems finding enough people for the workforce. Immigration may need to be encouraged to overcome these shortages. However, not all the issues are negative. It is likely that skills, knowledge and values of older people will be valued and the elderly will be more likely to provide support to their families or others.